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Product Lifecycle - The rebranding of Lucozade
 
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In AQA Graphics you need to know about, and be able to draw the Lifecycle graph of a product showing the 4 stages of it's life. The stages are Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. The case study that AQA illustrates in their text book is that of Lucozade. As the product declined in the 70s Lucozade went through two rebrandings. I have put together a string of adverts from 1972 to the present day. At the end of each advert there are some questions to prompt discussion.
Views: 14847 MrWaiteDT
The Product Life Cycle Explained
 
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Learn more about the Product Life Cycle on the free tutor2u website: https://www.tutor2u.net/business/reference?q=product+life+cycle This short revision video introduces and explains the theoretical concept of the product life cycle.
Views: 132593 tutor2u
National 5 and Higher Business Management: Product Life Cycle and Extension Strategies
 
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Short revision clip on the stages of the product life cycle and extension strategies. Created by Mr O'Hara Blairgowrie High School VideoScribe sponsored by BHS Parent Council
Views: 2225 [email protected]
3.3 29 Extension Strategies
 
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A second video looking at the product life cycle. This video considers how extension strategies can boost the life cycle of a product.
Views: 701 Mr Evans Business
Product Life Cycle Extension Strategies | Coursework | Report Writing | Dissertation | Theories
 
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Product Life Cycle Extension Strategies: What can certainly companies carry out to extend the Product Life Cycle? Promoting and advertising Selling price reduction Discover untouched markets Better appearance We Suggest That You Visit www.MBAHelp24.com For More Learning Resources & Tools On This Topic.
Views: 222 MBA Help24
A level Business Revision - Product Life Cycle
 
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A level Business Studies Revision - The Product Life Cycle. In this video, we examine the product life cycle concept, exploring each stage of the life cycle, discussing potential extension strategies that businesses may use and assessing the usefulness of the concept. See more of our videos: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCIlJ4pk3uzyWoeoBkGs0hxQ A level Business Studies Revision from TakingTheBiz.
Views: 5887 TakingTheBiz
brand expansion strategies
 
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NMHU-Marketing 535-Brand Extension Strategies
Views: 455 Tiffany Vicenti
Best Practice for Equipment Life Cycle Extension
 
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Mechanical components life cycle can be extended by the use of surface technology applied on site. Rewitec for gears and bearings reduce maintenance cost, increase reliability, and secures a sustainable operation of mechanical equipment.
Views: 1511 Rewitec
3.3 28 Product Life Cycle
 
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This video looks at how organisations can use the product life cycle to adjust the marketing strategy for a product as its sales change over time.
Views: 240 Mr Evans Business
What is PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION? What does PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION mean?
 
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What is PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION? What does PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION mean? PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION meaning - PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION definition - PRODUCT LINE EXTENSION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ A product line extension is the use of an established product brand name for a new item in the same product category. Line Extensions occur when a company introduces additional items in the same product category under the same brand name such as new flavors, forms, colors, added ingredients, package sizes. This is as opposed to brand extension which is a new product in a totally different product category. Line extension occurs when the company lengthens its product line beyond its current range. The company can extend its product line down-market stretch, up-market stretch, or both ways. Product line extensions are a process where companies with an established brand alter the factors of a product or products to satisfy a refined segment in the market. There are two types of product line extensions, horizontal and vertical. Horizontal extensions consist of keeping the price and quality consistent, but changing factors like flavour or colour to differentiate the products. Vertical extensions consist of increasing and decreasing the quality and price to create inferior and luxury goods. These product line extensions are often closely related to existing products in a brands portfolio, but targets specific brand consumers through this approach. Product line extensions help companies identify and tend to the needs of refined target markets. This approach is a way to try and increase company sales, as well as expanding their brands product portfolio within the desired market. This expansion of a company’s product line also increases their competitive impact, and if applied appropriately, their advantage within the intended market. Practically, when brands apply a product extension strategy they can often benefit from the new addition or additions. This is as extending their product line enlarges their product portfolio and as a result provides the consumers with more variety to choose from. This is positive, as consumers tend to enjoy being able to have choice and through expanding a brands product line, the brand is providing this choice. Investing in this approach is commonly pursued by companies due to their desire to create revenue and to advance their competitive status against rival companies. The advantages when undergoing product line extensions is that the new product or products are commonly closely related to existing products, so the company often has the appropriate production process and capacity to produce the new product or products. Issues facing product line extensions can include company’s investments in the new products without the desired return. The product may come at a loss or may not be able to make enough of the return the company was forecasting for. The new addition could also send confusion to the company’s customer base, and in turn negatively affect the loyalty they have for the brand. This can evidently become a long-term risk in terms of brand image, as consumers may have a new view of the brand as cheap, in the case of downward extension, or unrealistic and unreasonable in terms of upward extension. An issue also connected to the extensions, could result in the production process becoming more and more complicated as a result of new products, this could affect the company’s efficiency and quality in the production of the brands product range. An advantage of extending company product lines is the likely rise in sales, demand and market share. Product line extension increases the amount of different products available to consumers, and through adding more products into the market it keeps consumers interested. This can be helpful in avoiding customer base loss.
Views: 2019 The Audiopedia
Extending the life of products
 
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In July, the European Parliament adopted Greens/EFA MEP Pascal Durand's report aiming to make the goods we buy last longer, cutting down on waste while providing a better deal for consumers! A clear consensus on the need to end planned obsolescence.
Views: 94 Greens EFA
Product  Life  Cycle II Marketing Management II BBA / Bcom || Stages with Examples
 
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after watching this, you will get to know : - Stages in Product life cycle - Introduction stage - Growth stage - Maturity stage - Decline stage - Product life of NOKIA PHONES & APPLE iPODS keywords:- product life cycle theory product life cycle of nokia product life cycle example product life cycle ppt product life cycle stages product life cycle pdf product life cycle of coca cola product life cycle of pepsi product life cycle strategies product lifecycle management product life cycle product life cycle of maggi product life cycle and strategies product life cycle analysis product life cycle assessment product life cycle and its stages product life cycle and advertising product life cycle and strategies at different stages product life cycle advantages product life cycle and bcg matrix product life cycle assignment product life cycle and pricing a product life cycle focus a product life cycle diagram a product life cycle is continually a product life cycle for international trade a product's life cycle example extending a product life cycle define a product life cycle describe a product life cycle managing a product life cycle a cars product life cycle product life cycle bba product life cycle by philip kotler product life cycle based pricing product life cycle benefits product life cycle block diagram product life cycle blackberry product life cycle business product life cycle bcg matrix product life cycle bmw product life cycle business examples oral b product life cycle product life cycle costing product life cycle case study product life cycle concept product life cycle chart product life cycle coca cola product life cycle curve product life cycle costing stages product life cycle characteristics product life cycle costing ppt product life cycle costing pdf enervon c extending product life cycle product life cycle diagram product life cycle definition product life cycle development product life cycle disadvantages product life cycle decline stage example product life cycle design product life cycle define product life cycle development stage product life cycle diagram examples product life cycle definition by philip kotler r d product life cycle arthur d little product life cycle product life cycle d&t product life cycle example pdf product life cycle example ppt product life cycle engineering product life cycle essay product life cycle examples of brands product life cycle extension strategy product life cycle examples of products 2016 product life cycle explanation product life cycle economics ecommerce product life cycle e-reader product life cycle e-marketing product life cycle e cigarette product life cycle product life cycle of nokia e series product life cycle features product life cycle forecasting product life cycle for apple product life cycle formula product life cycle for fresh fruit juice product life cycle for software product life cycle for nokia product life cycle for cars product life cycle for micromax product life cycle for samsung galaxy f-secure product life cycle f&n product life cycle product life cycle graph product life cycle growth product life cycle given by product life cycle graph maker product life cycle growth stage examples product life cycle graph excel product life cycle gcse product life cycle graphics product life cycle growth definition product life cycle gates parle g product life cycle p g product life cycle parle-g product life cycle ppt product life cycle of parle g company product life cycle of parle g ppt for download product life cycle of parle g pdf product life cycle history product life cycle honda product life cycle hypothesis product life cycle horlicks product life cycle hbr product life cycle healthcare examples product life cycle huawei product life cycle harley davidson product life cycle harvesting product life cycle hp laptop h&m product life cycle product life cycle in marketing product life cycle in hindi product life cycle in marketing management product life cycle images product life cycle in software project management product life cycle importance product life cycle in cad product life cycle introduction product life cycle in pharmaceutical industry product life cycle in international marketing (i) what is product life cycle product life cycle johnson johnson baby products product life cycle journal pdf product life cycle journal articles product life cycle journal product life cycle jobs product life cycle job description product life cycle jeans product life cycle jewellery product life cycle journal of marketing product life cycle joel dean product life cycle kotler pdf product life cycle kellogg's corn flakes product life cycle kfc product life cycle kpis product life cycle kit kat product life cycle kodak product life cycle kellogg's product life cycle kotler and keller product life cycle kaspersky product life cycle kingfisher airlines special k product life cycle kellogg's special k product life cycle product life cycle limitation
Views: 5542 Sonu Singh - PPT wale
Brand Extension Strategy
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 897 Sky Mode
Traditional Product Life Cycle
 
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This video explores the path products take through their lives - Introduction/Birth, Growth, Maturity, and Retirement/Decline. Also it will illustrate what choices need to be made at the Decision Point stage of a product's life.
Views: 59987 Jason Richea
What is extension? product life cycle
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 197 Pipo Aguilera Z.
Product Life Cycle
 
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product life cycle and its stages, the product evaluation and its types, product safety, concept of brand extension, main rules of brand extension, brand alignment, brainstorming, risks of brand extension, emerging concepts of brand extension, issues in branding and it solutions.
Views: 14 deeksha
Product Life cycle
 
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Product Life cycle - created at http://animoto.com
Views: 9 Alek Gielfeldut
A Level Business -  Product Life Cycle - Marketing
 
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A brief video which introduces the concept of product portfolio management through the use of the product life cycle diagram. As well as examples for each phase of the life cycle there is a discussion about product life cycle extension strategies and some tips in how to answer questions. If you are looking for A Level Resources please visit the revisionstation website.
Views: 37 Revisionstation
Product Life Cycle
 
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-- Created using PowToon -- Free sign up at http://www.powtoon.com/youtube/ -- Create animated videos and animated presentations for free. PowToon is a free tool that allows you to develop cool animated clips and animated presentations for your website, office meeting, sales pitch, nonprofit fundraiser, product launch, video resume, or anything else you could use an animated explainer video. PowToon's animation templates help you create animated presentations and animated explainer videos from scratch. Anyone can produce awesome animations quickly with PowToon, without the cost or hassle other professional animation services require.
Views: 21502 Janica Crizel Castada
Product Life Cycle Explained
 
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In this video, we define the Product Life Cycle in detail and look at options to extend the profitable life of any product. We'll also look at an example of two products made by Apple. One of which was successful and the other flopped. Read more: https://goo.gl/RJXqNH
Views: 23 EPM
Apple to extend iPhone product cycle
 
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Don't expect to see new iPhones every two years. Apple says it will start debuting full-model changes of its iPhone devices every three years. CNET Editor Dan Ackerman joins CBSN with more.
Views: 431 CBSN
#4. Marketing for Startups: Product Life Cycle
 
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This video is about product life cycle in your startup marketing. We will try to uncover what happens with a product after a launch in this part of marketing for startups series. I hope you’ve already watched previous video about New Product Development where we finished at the launch stage. Product Life Cycle consists of four steps: Introduction, Growth, Maturity and Decline. As an example of product, we will consider ice cream. GrossPoint Marketing website http://www.gross-point.com/ Twitter of Gross Point Marketing https://twitter.com/gross_point Twitter of Anastasia MarCom https://twitter.com/AnastasiaMarCom Facebook page of GrossPoint Marketing https://www.facebook.com/gross.marketing
Episode 51: The Product Life Cycle
 
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Go Premium for only $9.99 a year and access exclusive ad-free videos from Alanis Business Academy. Click here for a 14 day free trial: http://bit.ly/1Iervwb To learn how Matt creates videos like this one, go here: http://bit.ly/1BgDuX5 View additional videos from Alanis Business Academy and interact with us on our social media pages: YouTube Channel: http://bit.ly/1kkvZoO Website: http://bit.ly/1ccT2QA Facebook: http://on.fb.me/1cpuBhW Twitter: http://bit.ly/1bY2WFA Google+: http://bit.ly/1kX7s6P The product life cycle represents a series of stages that products--similar to people--go through over the course of their lives. Marketers use their knowledge of the product life cycle to alter their marketing strategies related to specific products. In this video I'll explain the product life cycle and provide examples of products that fit into each of the stages.
Views: 172670 Alanis Business Academy
Episode 83: What are product extension strategies?
 
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Rather than let your product die, you can try and extend its life. Here are six suggestions on how to do that. The speaker notes and latest episodes can be found at http://www.the3minutementor.com/
Views: 1783 Nigel Dessau
Describe the International Product Life Cycle and discuss various life cycle stretching strategies
 
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Describe the International Product Life Cycle and discuss various life cycle stretching strategies. international product life cycle theory pdf diagram of international product life cycle product life cycle extension strategies pdf explain various factors affecting the choice of channels of distribution in international marketing international product life cycle example international product life cycle ppt product life cycle theory slideshare real life examples of extension strategies
Views: 64 Guffo solved
The Product Life Cycle
 
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Description
Views: 1245 Kyle Chuckry
Product Life Cycle IGCSE Question
 
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Extension Strategies - Paper 1 Cambridge IGCSE Business Studies
Marketing Strategies during Product Life Cycle Stages
 
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This video discusses various marketing strategies to be applied as a product moves through various stages of its life cycle.
Views: 9358 Vihari S
Product Life Cycle Video
 
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Team Awesome
Views: 12 Adriana Bueti
How to Make the Product Life Cycle PLC in Excel
 
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This video shows how to make and label the product life cycle (PLC) in Excel. Ideal for marketing students and practitioners. A free Excel template for PLC is also available for download at http://www.marketingstudyguide.com/make-plc-free-excel-template/
Views: 10576 MktgStudyGuide
Describe the International Product Life Cycle and discuss various life cycle stretching strategies
 
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Describe the International Product Life Cycle and discuss various life cycle stretching strategies product life cycle extension strategies pdf explain various factors affecting the choice of channels of distribution in international marketing diagram of international product life cycle international product life cycle theory pdf real life examples of extension strategies international product life cycle example what do you understand by international product life cycle how can a corporation's life cycle be extended
Views: 60 Guffo solved
Marketing: Extended Marketing Mix (7P's)
 
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The concept of the extended marketing mix takes us beyond Product, Price, Place and Promotion to consider three more marketing elements: People, Process and Physical. This short video outlines the 7 P's and provides an example.
Views: 38073 tutor2u
Extending the Life of Products after Launch
 
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Many bloggers have discovered the profitability of launching products from their blogs - but in doing so some have become trapped in something of a launch cycle trap. In this video I explore some strategies for extending the income that a product can bring in beyond its launch. The link mentioned in the video is - http://bit.ly/extendlaunch
Views: 2430 Darren Rowse
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE
 
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Introduction Stage of Samsung and marketing mix of 4p's
Views: 519 Syahirah 97
The Marketing Series 4: The Marketing Mix: Product
 
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http://www.tvchoice.uk.com - 31 mins, 2013 Key Topics Value Analysis Product Life Cycle Product Portfolio Boston Matrix Product Differentiation Brand Extension/Product Extension An exploration of what most marketers would regard as the most important element of the Marketing Mix: Product. PART 1 (15 mins): All About The Marketing Mix: Product. An introduction into the essentials of "product". What is value analysis? How is it done? What is the product life cycle? How can a business extend the life of a product? What is meant by brand extension? Also includes the Boston Matrix as a way of analysing a product portfolio. PART 2 (8 mins): Case Studies In Value Analysis. Apple iPad compared to the Panasonic Toughpad. Tesco's Everyday Value range. PART 3 (8 mins): Cash Cows, Stars & Dogs: Coca Cola is the cash cow that has funded new products, including "dogs" such as New Coke and Dasani in UK. Apple's come-back cash cow was the iPod, but that has been superseded by iPhone and iPad. McCain Foods' Oven Chips are the cash cow that has funded many variants. TV CHOICE has a range of over 200 educational films and film clips for Business Studies, Geography, History, Leisure and Tourism and many other subjects. USA FORMATS AVAILABLE. http://www.tvchoice.uk.com
Views: 2095 TVChoiceFilms
PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE in HINDI/URDU
 
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Four stages of Product life cycle # introduction#growth#maturuty#decline HERE ARE THE LINKS FOR MY ALL VIDEOS YOU MAY LIKE  Links for; MOTIVATIONAL videos (40 + videos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WM3Upd0MeDg&index=19&list=PLU-cxjF-s0HmnD_TYqmkb6VBL6AusSB_Y Basics of ECONOMICS; Micro & Macro (25 + videos) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLU-cxjF-s0HngkQ9xdQ5waYtpEO2MkP-D ECONOMETRICS; An introduction (20 + videos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNf1DLTRlTo&index=7&list=PLU-cxjF-s0Hk0DOXPqauiHBfRgaFpqYxK&t=0s RESEARCH & THESIS Writing (6 videos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ib7yYggOgpA&t=308s&list=PLU-cxjF-s0HlVJnf2dev1KtoAD3ZljWVg&index=3 OLIGOPOLY & GAME THEORY ( 6 videos) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLU-cxjF-s0HnlCialpcyfz0O8xminDXja Principles of MARKETING ( 10+ videos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mCAogfEz6bs&t=0s&list=PLU-cxjF-s0HlgTwSl9Xk3bx5z8q7kOD6F&index=12 Management; HRM & STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ( 6 videos) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uO3azOb2icE&t=314s&list=PLU-cxjF-s0Hml7o706eKofZ7D4bXIcJwH&index=6 ========= About KOKAB MANZOOR ========= Kokab Manzoor is Certified Trainer, Speaker & Career Counsellor. He has trained thousands of students & Professionals about Leadership & Management skills, Motivation, Personality Grooming, Career selection and about variety of other life skills. Has a sound understanding of needed traits for workplace success and a strong ability to train employees in improving those characteristics. Follow me www.Youtube.com/kokabmanzoor www.Facebook.com/kokabmanzoor19 [email protected] http://kokabmanzoor1.blogspot.com/
Views: 197 Kokab Manzoor
Grundfos Dynafilter - extend process fluid life-cycle!
 
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Anmasi is a certified Grundfos Biobooster partner for sales, installation and service of Dynafilter. The product can extend process fluid life-cycle by 6 - 18 months depending on the cleaning application!
Views: 39 ANMASI A/S
extending games life cycle
 
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i believe that a games life cycle should go on more than just 4 DLC with the new 3 year development cycle for Call of Duty
Views: 15 Fluttershy RLC
Apple product life cycle
 
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how to obtain NEW iPad Pro! http://ow.ly/TvoxO Take it quickly! 2.9 inch retina display, four speaker audio, 10-hour battery, 8MP iSight Camera http://ow.ly/TvoxO
Views: 559 Barbara Lessits
Ecommerce Solutions:  How To Extend Your Customer's Life Cycle
 
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Get realistic solutions on running an ecommerce business from 7 figure ecommerce seller Tanner Larsson. Tanner goes over Solutions on how to win back customers and reset their life cycle with your ecommerce store. Want An Ecommerce Promotion Strategy That Generates 800% ROI? Go Here: http://buildgrowscale.com/hybrid ======================================= Be sure to SUBSCRIBE to our Channel for More Ecommerce Videos: http://buildgrowscale.com/ecomvideos ======================================= Build Grow Scale http://www.BuildGrowScale.com BGS Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/BuildGrowScale Tanner's Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/MarketingWithTanner Twitter: https://twitter.com/BuildGrowScale ======================================= -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Easy Email Tips To Increase Your Profits By 22%" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uq4rbncdxU8 -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 205 Build Grow Scale
1537 Product Life Cycle A
 
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The four stages of the product life cycle must be understood in order to successfully lead project, product, or engineering development efforts. Firms will approach each stage with a strategy that is appropriate to their risk tolerance and related investment decisions. New product development projects will extend the life of the product. Read the full post at www.globalnpsolutions.com/idea-incubator/
The Product Mix | Hindi | Marketing topics
 
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Let's Make Your Business Digital With Lapaas. Join Our Most Advanced Digital Marketing Course. That will cover 23 Modules of Business And Digital Marketing like SEO, SEM, Email Marketing, Social Media Marketing, Affiliate Marketing , Digital Identity Creation, blogging, advanced analytics, blogging, video production, Photoshop, business Knowhow, etc To Know More Call +919540065704 or Visit https://lapaas.com/ Lapaas - Best Digital Marketing Institute 455 Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi-110042 Nearest Metro Station Samaypur Badli Or Rithala Share, Support, Subscribe!!! Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/IntellectualIndies Twitter: https://twitter.com/Intellectualins Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IntellectualIndies Facebook Myself: https://www.facebook.com/princesahilkhanna Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/intellectualindies/ Website: sahilkhanna.in About : Intellectual Indies is a YouTube Channel, Intellectual Indies is all about improving Mentally, Emotionally, Psychologically, Spiritually & Physically. #Marketing #Marketing101 #GrowBusiness
Views: 42116 Intellectual Indies
Marketing for Product Line Extension
 
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Intercontinental Blue Retreat
Views: 930 Akshay Farde
Nintendo Looking to Extend Normal Console Life Cycle With Switch - IGN News
 
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Nintendo is enjoying a wave of success with the Switch, drowning out the tepid reception of the Wii U, which the Switch has already outsold, just 10 months into its lifecycle. At the company's investor call, director and creative lead Shigeru Miyamoto, outlined the plans for console, which are ambitious, to say the least. Miyamoto seems confident that the usual console lifecycle of five to six years is something that Nintendo can prolong for the Switch. Subscribe to the IGN News Channel! https://www.youtube.com/user/ignnews?sub_confirmation=1 ------------------------------­---- Follow IGN for more! ------------------------------­---- IGN OFFICIAL APP: http://www.ign.com/mobile FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/ign TWITTER: https://twitter.com/ign INSTAGRAM: https://instagram.com/igndotcom/?hl=en WEBSITE: http://www.ign.com/ GOOGLE+: https://plus.google.com/+IGN
Views: 5673 IGN News
Marketing Mix Product and Extension strategies
 
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Taking you through the Product lifecycle and extension strategies for Higher Business Management
Views: 53 Damian Heaney
Rosemount™ Flame and Gas Detection Solutions: Superior Customer Care
 
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At Emerson, our industry-leading quality standards extend beyond engineering, manufacturing, and distribution they span the entire product life cycle from the very first customer interaction to the end of the product’s life.
Views: 307 Rosemount
Extending the life cycle of your pool surface and equipment through corrosion management
 
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http://orendatech.com/langelier-saturation-index/ The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) is a formula developed from studies conducted by Dr. Wilfred Langelier in the early 20th century. The LSI is the basis for water balance and saturation, and this article will try to explain how it works in a simplified way. This is complex science, but very helpful to know as a pool owner or operator. The LSI Equation (pH) + (Temperature ºF) + (Calcium Hardness) + [(Total Alkalinity) – (CYA correction factor @ current pH)] – (TDS factor) = LSI Think of the LSI as a scale with a fulcrum A perfect score on the LSI is zero (0.0). Zero is perfectly balanced water; saturated with the perfect amount of calcium and dissolved solids, and has a stable pH. Being the universal solvent, if water is out of balance, it will naturally try to find its own balance and equilibrium, because it wants to be at 0.0 LSI. For instance, if there is not enough calcium, water will dissolve and extract it from the plaster walls of the pool (etching). Langelier saturation index (LSI) scale Calcium carbonate, metals and other dissolved solids must all be saturated and balanced to attain zero LSI. The Langelier saturation index is basically a way to determine if water is corrosive (negative LSI) or scale-forming (positive LSI). LSI between -0.3 and +0.3 is the widely accepted range, though 0.0 is the ideal. The key word here is saturation. Ideal saturation is 0.0 LSI. Under-saturation is corrosive, and over-saturation is scale-forming. Water can only hold so much calcium in suspension. Once the water is saturated to where it wants to be, the etching stops. In this instance, as pool professionals, our goal is to properly balance water up front (and maintain it) so that neither etching nor scaling occur. Low LSI does not just etch plaster, it can corrode metal too. This is part of the reason why metal sequests like Orenda SC-1000 are so important to use in pools, especially during start up. Like calcium, water will dissolve metals and keep them in suspension…until the water is oversaturated. The six variables you need to calculate the Langelier Saturation Index: pH Temperature (ºF) Calcium Hardness (ppm) Alkalinity (ppm) Cyanuric Acid/Stabilizer (If applicable, correction based on pH) Total Dissolved Solids (ppm) More about the LSI factors pH: this variable is the most likely to shift up and down, as pool operators already know. In the LSI calculation, it has no factor, just the pH value itself (example: 7.2). The lower the pH, the more acidic, and the higher the pH, the more alkaline. Calcium on salt cell, scale Salt cells generate heat, which encourages calcium to fall out of solution and form scale. Temperature (ºF): Temperature affects the speed of chemical reactions in water. This explains why salt cells often have calcium carbonate scale on them (heat). Calcium Hardness: This is a measurement of how much calcium is dissolved in the water. Water that is over-saturated with calcium is likely to be more scale forming, but only if the pH and total alkalinity allow for it to come out of solution. Calcium hardness—like total alkalinity—serves as a buffer for pH. Alkalinity: In the original Langelier Saturation Index formula, Dr. Langelier used total alkalinity. Over time, however, it became evident that swimming pool chemistry is different from other types of water; therefore it is more accurate to use carbonate alkalinity. Cyanuric Acid (stabilizer): If CYA is present, adjust total alkalinity with the cyanurate correction factor in the chart above to find the carbonate alkalinity. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS): TDS is a measurement of everything that is dissolved in the water, floating around in suspension. You will see that calcium hardness and total alkalinity have a similar impact on LSI. This is important, because it means total alkalinity is not alone in its ability to buffer/stabilize pH. Calcium hardness does too. The higher the hardness, the more stable the pH. Additionally, the LSI offers a different way of looking at water chemistry. By understanding how saturated the water is with metals and calcium, it is a strong predictor of damage to gunite/plaster before it gets bad. And on the other hand, if the LSI is positive, the water is likely to form scale, even if not seen. So as owners and operators, the LSI offers a broader view of water chemistry beyond just pH and chlorine levels. At Orenda, we believe two measurements—LSI and ORP—will be the future standard of measurement in pool chemistry. Free LSI calculator available on the Orenda App.
Views: 6218 Orenda Technologies
Cadbury - Product Line Extension
 
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Education and Awareness
Views: 633 Zaahir Dawood

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