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Search results “Interactive rising sea level map” for the 2007
Sea level rise in Northern Europe
 
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Check out the new HD version of this video! Potential sea level rise in Northern Europe resulting from global warming and the complete melting of the polar ice sheets. This video shows sea level from the present-day location to the level estimated if the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melt completely. Source: http://www.panglosstech.com/
Views: 366728 Pangloss Tech
Correcting Global Warming Maps
 
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A global temperature map, corrected for area and sensitivity biases.
Views: 7130 patrickphenry
Global Warming Map Graphic / Evolução Aquecimento Global
 
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Source: NASA More at www.metsul.com
Views: 11158 Alexandre Aguiar
Cookeville Flood (longer version)
 
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An animation showing rising "water" levels to illustrate the concept of basic topographic contours. Longer version of previous video. Data available from http://www.tngis.org ArcScene document available at: http://www.geo.ua.edu/students/jdkington/algood_flood_transparent.zip
Views: 2669 Joe Kington
Asian-American Land Bridge
 
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This video shows the change in sea level from the peak of the last ice age to the present. The land bridge that existed ~18,000 years ago has gradually disappeared with rising sea level. Source: http://www.panglosstech.com/
Views: 60172 Pangloss Tech
Simulation of  global warming
 
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As previsões do aquecimento da terra ate 2100 (c) www.henagaijin.com , www.abcjapan.org
Views: 15094 henagaijim
NOAA Titanic Expedition 2004: Breathtaking Wreck Footage
 
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Breathtaking... Nearly 20 years after first finding the sunken remains of the R.M.S. Titanic, marine explorer Robert Ballard returned in June 2004, helped by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration to study the ship's rapid deterioration. The Titanic team worked aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown from May 30 through June 9, spending 11 days at the wreck site, mapping the ship and conducting scientific analysis of its deterioration. The team used Institute for Exploration (IFE) remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) Hercules and Argus to conduct a sophisticated documentation of the state of Titanic was not possible in the 1980s. This "look, don't touch" mission used high-definition video and stereoscopic still images to provide an updated assessment of the wreck site at a depth of 3,840 meters (12,600 feet). As the nation's ocean agency, NOAA has a vested interest in the scientific and cultural aspects of the Titanic and in its appropriate treatment and preservation. NOAA's focus is to build a baseline of scientific information from which we can measure the shipwreck's processes and deterioration, and then apply the knowledge we gain to other deepwater shipwrecks and submerged cultural resources. Video courtesy of the R.M.S. Titanic Expedition Team 2004, ROI, IFE, NOAA-OER. Source: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/04titanic/welcome.html Google Map of wreck site location for the R.M.S. Titanic: http://go.usa.gov/XWk
Views: 4103915 oceanexplorergov
Global Warming 101 | National Geographic
 
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Global warming could do more than just melt polar ice. It could change our maps, and displace people from cities and tropical islands. See all National Geographic videos: http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/?source=4001 ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe ➡ Get More 101 Videos: http://bit.ly/NatGeo101 About National Geographic’s 101 Series: Explore and experience the forces that shape the world around us. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Global Warming 101 | National Geographic https://youtu.be/oJAbATJCugs National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 3119511 National Geographic
Ferris Wheel Trig Problem
 
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Trigonometry problems dealing with the height of two people on a ferris wheen
Views: 167440 Khan Academy
The Most Terrifying Video You'll Ever See
 
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A new way to think about the climate change debate, with over 13 million total views on various postings. Intrigued? Check out the related material: 1) “HOW IT ALL ENDS”: An exhaustively detailed follow-up series addressing every criticism I could find to “The Most Terrifying Video You’ll Ever See”. Playlist is at http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=92EE5DBE2987982F 2) “WHAT’S THE WORST THAT COULD HAPPEN?”: An even more exhaustively developed book giving instruction on how to come up with an answer based on your own values and experience. It doesn’t tell you *what* to think about climate change. It tells you *how* to think about climate change. Available on Amazon. Trailer here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7e10ZNpogv4 3) “DO YOU DARE THE DRAGON?” A 3-minute animation of the precautionary principle applied to climate change. Way simpler than it sounds. Perfectly bite-sized for forwarding to friends on social media! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdbeg7mS-CU -----------More details on the above:------------ 1) “HOW IT ALL ENDS”: I spent months combing through literally tens of thousands of critical comments to find every single objection, criticism, "Yeah but," and "You missed a spot" that I could to “The Most Terrifying Video You’ll Ever See.” A bruisingly thorough 7-hour video project, anchored by the video “How It All Ends,” which incorporates the arguments from this video, while addressing a logical hole big enough to drive a truck through that this video missed. Playlist is at http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=92EE5DBE2987982F 2) “WHAT’S THE WORST THAT COULD HAPPEN? A RATIONAL RESPONSE TO THE CLIMATE CHANGE DEBATE,” book by Greg Craven (me). A book on climate change, unique in the genre. It’s not really about climate change--it’s really about how you go about making a decision in a confusing situation (here, the debate about climate change). Available on Amazon. Praise for the book: "This book trumps most of our accounts of the global warming crisis." --author Bill McKibben "Al Gore should share his Nobel peace prize." -The "New Scientist" "...superbly crafted...A must read." -Gen. Anthony Zinni, US CENTCOM Commander (Ret.) "This is a tremendous book and well worth anyone's time to read.... You're in for a treat—Craven is funny as well as exceptionally clear, and wise." --Kim Stanley Robinson, Hugo and Nebula Award-winning author of the Mars Trilogy and Science in the Capital "This is a terrifically thoughtful book.... Cravens book shines an illuminating floodlight on how we think about global warming." --Ross Gelbspan, author, "The Heat Is On" and "Boiling Point" 3) “DO YOU DARE THE DRAGON?” A collaboration with Rupert Read of the University of East Anglia. A fun, succinct little animation on how to make a decision about what (if anything) to do about climate change if you’re not sure whether it’s going to happen or not. Designed to help break the logjam in the popular debate about climate change. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tdbeg7mS-CU
Views: 7023655 wonderingmind42
Why we do what we do | Tony Robbins
 
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Tony Robbins discusses the "invisible forces" that make us do what we do -- and high-fives Al Gore in the front row. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at http://www.ted.com/translate. Follow us on Twitter http://www.twitter.com/tednews Checkout our Facebook page for TED exclusives https://www.facebook.com/TED
Views: 12172284 TED
Political Borders of Europe from 1519 to 2006
 
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** NEW (Jan/2011) THIS VIDEO HAS BEEN CITED IN AN ACADEMIC ARTICLE (read more below) The link to the article is here: http://tinyurl.com/374xjyt TITLE: Democratic Public Discourse in the Coming Autarchic Communities ABSTRACT: The main purpose of this article is to tackle the problem of living together -- as dignified human beings -- in a certain territory in the field of social philosophy, on the theoretical grounding ensured by some remarkable exponents of the Austrian School − and by means of the praxeologic method. Because political tools diminish the human nature not only of those who use them, but also of those who undergo their effects, people can live a life worthy of a human being only as members of some autarchic or self-governing communities. As a spontaneous order, every autarchic community is inherently democratic, inasmuch as it makes possible free involvement, peaceful coordination, free expression and the free reproduction of ideas. The members of autarchic communities are moral individuals who avoid aggression, practice self-control, seek a dynamical efficiency and establish (together with their fellow human beings) a democratic public discourse. Keywords: democracy, democratic public discourse, libertarian, self-control, non-aggression axiom, spontaneous order, autarchic community META: RESEARCH IN HERMENEUTICS, PHENOMENOLOGY, AND PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY VOL. II, NO. 2 / 2010: 386-409, ISSN 2067-3655, www.metajournal.org ----------------------------- *********************************** -------------------------------- OTHER MAP: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LwsmzHxMktA Explore more at http://home.zonnet.nl/gerardvonhebel/ I just got the pictures they have on their site, added the dates and morphed them in sequence. Pay special attention to the area that is now called Germany. So much change in so little time. Music: Johannes Brahms - Waltz (1865) Note: I am not affiliated with the websites, I just made this out of pure curiosity.
Views: 803897 gilgtc
NASA | A Short Tour of the Cryosphere
 
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Want more? Subscribe to NASA on iTunes! http://phobos.apple.com/WebObjects/MZStore.woa/wa/viewPodcast?id=283424434 The cryosphere consists of those parts of the Earth's surface where water is found in solid form, including areas of snow, sea ice, glaciers, permafrost, ice sheets, and icebergs. This animation portrays changes in the cryosphere through observations collected from a variety of NASA's satellite-based sensors. For more info: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a003300/a003355/index.html
Views: 51923 NASA Goddard
22.How to Trade the Relative Strength Index (RSI) Like a Pro
 
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Practice these concepts with a free practice charting and trading account here: http://bit.ly/apextrader For the full lesson with images, text, links, and discussion, go here: http://www.informedtrades.com/3946-relative-strength-index-rsi-trading.html For our full beginner course in technical analysis and trading, go here: http://www.informedtrades.com/index.php?page=freetradingcourses And of course, don't forget to jump start your learning as a trader by registering as a member of our learning community: http://www.informedtrades.com VIDEO NOTES A lesson on how to trade the RSI for traders and investors using technical analysis in the stock market, futures market and forex market. In our last lesson we looked at 3 different ways that the MACD indicator can be traded. In today's lesson we are going to look at a class of indicators which are known as Oscillators with a look at how to trade one of the more popular Oscillators the Relative Strength Index (RSI). An oscillator is a leading technical indicator which fluctuates above and below a center line and normally has upper and lower bands which indicate overbought and oversold conditions in the market (an exception to this would be the MACD which is an Oscillator as well). One of the most popular Oscillators outside of the MACD which we have already gone over is the Relative Strength Index (RSI) which is where we will start our discussion. The RSI is best described as an indicator which represents the momentum in a particular financial instrument as well as when it is reaching extreme levels to the upside (referred to as overbought) or downside (referred to as oversold) and is therefore due for a reversal. The indicator accomplishes this through a formula which compares the size of recent gains for a particular financial instrument to the size of recent losses, the results of which are plotted as a line which fluctuates between 0 and 100. Bands are then placed at 70 which is considered an extreme level to the upside, and 30 which is considered an extreme level to the downside. Example of the RSI The first and most popular way that traders use the RSI is to identify and potentially trade overbought and oversold areas in the market. Because of the way the RSI is constructed a reading of 100 would indicate zero losses in the dataset that you are analyzing, and a reading of zero would indicate zero gains, both of which would be a very rare occurrence. As such James Wilder who developed the indicator chose the levels of 70 to identify overbought conditions and 30 to identify oversold conditions. When the RSI line trades above the 70 line this is seen by traders as a sign the market is becoming overextended to the upside. Conversely when the market trades below the 30 line this is seen by traders as a sign that the market is becoming over extended to the downside. As such traders will look for opportunities to go long when the RSI is below 30 and opportunities to go short when it is above 70. As with all indicators however this is best done when other parts of a trader's analysis line up with the indicator. Example of RSI Showing Overbought and Oversold: A second way that traders look to use the RSI is to look for divergences between the RSI and the financial instrument that they are analyzing, particularly when these divergences occur after overbought or oversold conditions in the market. These divergences can act as a sign that a move is loosing momentum and often occur before reversals in the market. As such traders will watch for divergences as a potential opportunity to trade a reversal in the stock, futures or forex markets or to enter in the direction of a trend on a pullback. Example of RSI Divergence: The third way that traders look to use the RSI is to identify bullish and bearish changes in the market by watching the RSI line for when it crosses above or below the center line. Although traders will not normally look to trade the crossover it can be used as confirmation for trades based on other methods. Example of the RSI Centerline Crossover: That's our lesson for today. You should now have a good understanding of the RSI and how traders use this indicator in their trading. In tomorrows lesson we will look at another Oscillator which is known as the Stochastic Oscillator so we hope to see you in that lesson. As always if you have any questions please feel free to leave them in the comments section below, and have a great day!
Views: 444053 InformedTrades
Change your Mind Change your Brain: The Inner Conditions...
 
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Google Tech Talks March 15, 2007 ABSTRACT If happiness is an inner state, influenced by external conditions but not dependent on them, how can we achieve it? Ricard will examine the inner and outer factors that increase or diminish our sense of well-being, dissect the underlying mechanisms of happiness, and lead us to a way of looking at the mind itself based on his book, Happiness: A Guide to Life's Most Important Skill and from the research in neuroscience on the effect of mind-training on the brain. Speaker Bio: Matthieu Ricard, a gifted scientist turned Buddhist monk, is a best selling author, translator, and photographer. He has lived and studied in the Himalayas for the last 35 years...
Views: 1426638 Google
Paul Revere Williams - A Legend in Architecture
 
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Documentary highlighting the life of Paul Revere Williams, the first certified African American architect west of the Mississippi. "Architect to the Stars"
Views: 17319 Beach TV CSULB
RuneScape Battle Of World- 95
 
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Your continued donations keep Wikipedia running! RuneScape From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search RuneScape Developer(s) Jagex Ltd. Publisher(s) Jagex Ltd. Release date(s) RuneScape Classic: 4 January 2001 RuneScape 2: 29 March 2004 Genre(s) Fantasy MMORPG Mode(s) Multiplayer Platform(s) Java Platform: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Mac OS X Media Web interface System requirements Low detail: 64 MB RAM, 300 MHz CPU High detail: 128 MB RAM, 500 MHz CPU Input Keyboard, Mouse RuneScape is a Java-based MMORPG operated by Jagex Ltd. With over nine million active free accounts[1] and more than one million paid member accounts,[2] RuneScape is rated among the most popular online games in the world.[3] More than five million unique players access their accounts to play RuneScape at least once per month.[4] RuneScape offers both free and subscription content and is designed to be accessible from any location with an Internet connection and to run in an ordinary web browser without straining system resources.[5] Andrew Gower created DeviousMUD, the forerunner to RuneScape, in 1998, running a week-long public beta test. Rewritten and renamed, the first version of RuneScape was released to the public on 4 January 2001. Since its release, the game has been praised for its free-playing abilities and its availability on a web browser. RuneScape takes place in the fantasy-themed realm of Gielinor,[6] which is divided into several different kingdoms, regions, and areas.[7] Players can travel throughout the gaming world on foot, by using magical teleportation spells or devices, or mechanical means of transportation.[8] Each region offers different types of monsters, materials, and quests to challenge players. Players are shown on the screen as customisable avatars. They set their own goals and objectives, deciding which of the available activities to pursue. There is no linear path that must be followed. Players can engage in combat with other players or with monsters, complete quests, or increase their experience in any of the available skills.[9] Players interact with each other through trading, chatting, or playing combative or cooperative mini-games. Contents [hide] 1 History and development 1.1 Servers 1.2 Advertising 1.3 Other languages 2 Membership 3 Gameplay 3.1 Sound 3.2 Graphics 3.3 Skills 3.4 Combat 3.5 Quests 3.6 Interaction 3.7 Random events 4 Community 4.1 Rules and cheating 5 Reception 6 References 7 External links History and development Three Screenshots from DeviousMUD, the forerunner to RuneScape, which was never released to the public.DeviousMUD, the forerunner to RuneScape, was created in 1998 by Andrew Gower. The game, which was never publicly released, used isometric graphics. In 1999, Gower completely rewrote the game, albeit with no improvements to the graphics or several other aspects of the game. This version was released as a public beta version for approximately one week before it was withdrawn.[10] As a Cambridge University undergraduate, Gower worked on a complete rewrite of the game with the assistance of his brother, Paul Gower.[11] The isometric view was replaced by a mixture of both three-dimensional and two-dimensional sprites. The game, renamed RuneScape, was released to the public as a beta version on 4 January 2001[12] and was originally operated from their parents' house in Nottingham.[11] In December 2001, the Gower brothers and Constant Tedder formed Jagex to take over the business aspects of running RuneScape.[12] On 27 February 2002, a membership service was made available, allowing players who choose to pay a monthly fee to access a variety of additional features including new areas, quests, and items. This service significantly changed the focus of the game. A screenshot of RuneScape Classic.As RuneScape became more popular, Jagex began planning major changes. Although only a graphical update was initially planned,[13] the developers opted instead to rewrite the game engine completely, introducing a version that consisted entirely of three-dimensional graphics, with other significant improvements. While in development, this version was known as RuneScape 2. A beta version of the new engine was made available to paying members on 1 December 2003, and the finished version was launched on 29 March 2004.[14] Upon release, RuneScape 2 was renamed RuneScape, and the older version of the game was kept online as RuneScape Classic. RuneScape Classic was restricted to paying members who had recently logged in to the Classic servers on 12 January 2006, due to persistent cheating.[15] On 16 May 2006, Jagex upgraded RuneScape's game engine, primarily as a back-end upgrade rather than a visible graphical boost.[16] In particular, the amount of memory required to run RuneScape was significantly reduced, allowing the game to be expanded and improved without increasing the loading time for most players. The engine was upgraded once again on 26 June 2007 to allow Jagex to add more complex content to RuneScape in the future.[17] On 5 July 2007, an article was released in which Andrew Gower told an interviewer he saw a release of RuneScape onto the seventh generation of gaming consoles (the Wii, the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation 3) as "tempting", hinting that Jagex may consider releasing a version of RuneScape onto these consoles in the future.[18] Servers RuneScape servers are located in seven countries; USA, Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Australia, Finland and Sweden.There are about 140 RuneScape servers located throughout the world, which are numbered and referred to as worlds by players and by Jagex. The servers use Unix, Debian GNU/Linux, and Cisco IOS software,[19] and they are located in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia, Sweden and Finland.[20] Historically, servers have been located in areas where they will provide the best connection for players in a cost-effective manner. Servers are moved as the need arises.[21] Each of the RuneScape servers allows 2,000 players to connect simultaneously, allowing a maximum capacity of approximately 280,000 players online at any given time. The servers are divided into free servers, accessible to all players, and member servers, accessible only by those players who choose to pay a monthly fee for additional content. Unlike many other MMORPGs, RuneScape characters are not bound to a particular server, but rather can switch freely among the servers each time they access the game.[22] In addition to the RuneScape servers, there are two members-only servers for RuneScape Classic, both located in the United Kingdom. Each of these is limited to 1,250 players, allowing a total number of 2,500 simultaneous RuneScape Classic players. Only players who played RuneScape Classic in the six months prior to 12 January 2006 can currently log onto the Classic servers.[15] Advertising To support RuneScape's free content, advertisements are displayed above the playing screen on the free-player servers. On 13 July 2006, Jagex signed an exclusive marketing and distribution contract with WildTangent Games,[1] which granted WildTangent the right to handle advertising in and around RuneScape in the United States. The deal also allowed WildTangent to distribute RuneScape through the WildTangent Games Network,[1] a distribution channel, reaching over 20 million consumer PCs.[23] WildTangent has stressed that this agreement will not change the way RuneScape is presented and that they plan to make the presence of the advertisements, vital to RuneScape, as non-invasive as possible. Jagex moderators have stated that there will be no in-game advertisements.[1] Since computer users may use advertisement blockers which may discourage advertisers, Jagex introduced a rule that prohibits players from blocking the advertisements in the free game.[24] Other languages On 14 February 2007, Jagex released a German closed beta translation of RuneScape. As of 7 March 2007, it is in a public beta stage while errors in the translation of the game and website are still being corrected. Currently, there are two German language servers online, one for each the free and members versions of RuneScape.[25][26] Membership The skills interface shown while playing RuneScape, with member skills outlined in blue.Membership in RuneScape is an optional service that provides extensive additional content and extra features versus the free version of the game. Most quests and several skills, as well as three-fourths of the world map, are reserved for members. Members can play mini-games with unique rewards, use new items, and have access to improvements for nearly all skills. Paying users also receive additional storage space for their items, priority customer service, and the ability to post on the official forums. Regular game updates are usually reserved for members, save for a few updates each year that affect the free version of the game.[27] Monthly membership fees are currently set at £3.20, $5.00 US, $7.20 CDN, €4.60, $8.20 AUD or $8.90 SGD, if paid for with a credit or debit card. Other payment methods are available, such as PayPal, cheque or money order, or through players' telephone providers, generally at a higher price.[27] Members are granted access to members-only servers, which have no advertisements displayed during play. Although members can still play on free servers, members-only content and items cannot be used on free servers. However, these players cannot access any free servers while in a members-only area. Membership benefits on the German website and game will carry over to the English version and vice-versa.[26] Gameplay New players begin in a secluded area populated only by other beginners, Tutorial Island.[22] They are led on a set path where they learn most of the non members skills needed to succeed in Gielinor, the land of RuneScape. After completing the tutorial, players can access information from tutors located in the towns they explore. These non-player characters, or NPCs, can replace some basic equipment items if necessary. Sound RuneScape has music, sound effects, and ambient noises throughout Gielinor to enhance gameplay. The music is designed to enhance mood and help to define the underlying cultures of the various locations around Gielinor. Sound effects, such as the "sploosh" heard when a lobster trap is submerged in water, are heard as players train their skills. Ambient noises, such as the cry of seagulls flying over the ocean, occur in logical places. As different locations are visited by the player, new music for that area is unlocked, and can be played back later. Players can adjust the volumes of the music, sound effects, and ambient noises independently of each other.[28] Graphics RuneScape can be run with high or low-detail graphics; high-detail mode enhances texture and design, whereas low-detail provides a cleaner look and can reduce lag on older or less powerful computers. In February 2005, Jagex began the process of updating the graphical images in the RuneScape cities and the wilderness, planning ultimately to improve the graphics of the entire free area of RuneScape without causing more lag for people using dial-up Internet connections. [29] RuneScape places emphasis on granting players the ability to customise their characters by supplying a wide choice in character models. Unlike many games in the genre, player characters are always human; however, players can choose their appearance from hairstyles, body types, facial features, clothing options, and sex.[22] On-screen appearance is further optimised by wearing or wielding items, with each different item having a unique image. Standard weapons of the same class, such as swords, use the same set of animations in combat; however, some special weapons have their own, distinctive animations that differ completely from those of other weapons in their category. Players' appearances can be changed using special equipment or during particular game events. Transformations into frogs, mushrooms, eggs, and other objects and animals can occur, depending on the circumstances. These "morphs" are temporary, and sometimes allow players to avoid negative gameplay effects or access otherwise unreachable areas; however, they restrict certain activities that human characters are normally allowed to perform.[30] Every activity performed by a player, such as planting a seed in a farming plot or walking down a street, has its own distinctive animation. Players can also express emotions through the use of emotes, which are specialized animations that can be performed at will. New players start out with most available emotes; some, however, must be earned by completing quests, random events, or holiday events.[31] Skills Main article: RuneScape skills A player collects iron ore using the mining skill.Skills in RuneScape are the abilities that enable players to perform activities in the game. Players gain experience in a skill when they perform activities that utilise that skill, such as mining ore from a rock to increase the mining skill. In general, the higher the level required to perform a task, the more experience points the player receives, and the more desirable the result. The total skill level of a player partly symbolises the player's status in the game. The RuneScape hiscore tables can be viewed by all players, and players with higher overall levels are well known within the RuneScape community. Upon reaching the highest available level in a skill, members may obtain a special cape, referred to as a "Cape of Achievement", which can be used to perform an emote related to that skill. Many types of tasks can be performed in the game using skills. Some skills, such as defence and hitpoints, provide combat bonuses, while others, such as woodcutting and fishing, enable the player to collect resources that can be sold for a profit or personal use. Raw materials are converted into goods to be used in combat with skills such as fletching and cooking. There are also skills that allow players to kill certain NPCs, build their own houses, or move around the map with greater ease, to name a few.[32] Combat A player and an NPC engage in combat.Main article: RuneScape combat Combat is an important aspect of the gameplay in RuneScape, as it is one of the most direct ways of gaining wealth and is needed to start and complete many quests. Combat level, determined by applying a formula to the seven combat skills, is usually referred to simply as "level". Combat level is the only information about the player that is visible to other players while in game. The minimum combat level is 3, which is the starting combat, while the maximum a player can be is 126. Other skill levels increase total levels and overall rankings which can be seen by other players on the official "high scores".[33] Unlike most games in the MMORPG genre, RuneScape does not require players to choose a character class. Players are not bound to a specific category of combat, and they may freely change between the three styles of combat at any time simply by switching weapons, armours, or the form and focus of attack. Players can carry the weapons and armours of the three combat categories in their inventories, switching between or even combining the styles at will. Combat is subdivided into melee, magic, and ranged categories. Melee attacks are close range with or without weapons,[34] magic attacks focus on using runestones to cast spells,[35] and ranged attacks use projectile weapons.[36] Most of the game's weapons are medieval or fantastical in nature and feature different strengths and weaknesses. Players die when they receive enough damage from combat, poison, or obstacles to cause their hitpoints to fall to zero. Players who die reappear at one of three respawn points (the town of Lumbridge by default, though members may change it to the city of Falador or to the Castle of Camelot upon completion of a quest to unlock each respawn.) with all their skills, including hitpoints, restored to normal levels; however, they lose all but three of their most valuable items that they were carrying at the time of death. A special prayer increases this to four items, but recent player killing, denoted by a skull above the player's head, decreases this to no items and just one with the prayer.[33] Quests Quests are tasks that players may complete in order to receive rewards, often access to new items, areas and new spellbooks for the magic skill. These often require minimum levels in certain skills or a minimum combat level to complete them, and a few require the help of another player. In addition, quests are grouped into four categories based on requirements and difficulty. Novice quests effectively act as extended tutorials for new players. Intermediate quests are designed to act as new obstacles on a relatively basic level, while experienced and master quests aim to challenge the more experienced players. Many master quests open up new areas of Gielinor for players to explore. [37] Once a player completes all quests in the game, another achievement cape, commonly referred to as the "quest cape", can be purchased from an NPC. Wearing this cape allows the player to perform a special emote.[38] Many quests require players to kill particularly powerful monsters. Upon completing quests, players receive rewards that vary depending on the difficulty of the quest. Rewards often include coins, items, access to a new area, or an increase in skill experience. Quest points are also awarded for completing quests, the amount of which varies from quest to quest. Some quests require the player to have a specified number of quest points or to have previously completed certain quests before beginning the quest. Many quests are part of overlapping storylines that become more difficult as the player progresses through them. The longest of these has been in RuneScape since 2002[39] and currently contains several separate quests.[40][41] Interaction Castle Wars, one of the most popular mini-games, is based on capture the flag gameplay.Many NPCs populate the realm of Gielinor. Although some NPCs, such as shopkeepers, have game functions that require them to be unavailable for combat, most NPCs can be attacked. Attackable NPCs are generally referred to as monsters, regardless of their race. Monsters range from common, low level creatures like chickens and bears to unique, much more powerful monsters like the King Black Dragon, Chaos Elemental or Kalphite Queen. Each type of monster has its own strengths and weaknesses. Demons, for example, have low defence against magical attacks while most dragons have extremely high defence against magic. Monsters may either be aggressive or non-aggressive. The aggressive monsters attack all players who are under twice the combat of the monster. However, in the wilderness, aggressive monsters attack all players regardless of level. Non-aggressive monsters do not attack players until the player attacks first. This can make certain areas throughout Gielinor dangerous or inconvenient to players depending upon their combat levels.[42] RuneScape also features independent mini-games for its players. Mini-games take place in certain areas and normally involve a specific skill. Mini-games usually require players to cooperate or to compete with each other. Popular mini-games include Castle Wars, which is similar to the real-life game Capture the Flag, and Pest Control, a highly combat-focused mini-game. Currently, all mini-games, with the exception of the Stronghold of Security, are available only to paying members.[43] Players can fight against other players in player versus player (PvP) combat in certain areas of Gielinor. The most common place is in the Wilderness, where players risk their lives and their items fighting other players.[44] Players can engage in PvP combat without risking their items in mini-games such as the Duel Arena, Castle Wars, and the TzHaar Fight Pits, and in combat arenas or dungeons in player owned houses. Players engaging in PvP combat in the Duel Arena can agree on rules for the duel such as allowing only melee attacks or preventing players from using potions or food during the fight. Random events While preparing a meal, a player is interrupted by a random event that requires the player's response. Ignorance of random events results in negative consequences for the player. There are over 40 possible random events.Random events are short interludes that occur during the game, requiring some form of player input. They were introduced to deter players from using automated programs, known as macros, autoers, or bots, to play the game with no human interaction. The use of such macros is explicitly forbidden and can result in the permanent ban of accounts found to be using them. Postings in the RuneScape forums by Andrew Gower suggest that random events were designed not only to hinder macroers but to alleviate the monotony that can occur while levelling skills for long periods of time (referred to as grinding).[45] Some random events are simple, requiring a player only to click on an NPC or to leave the area temporarily; others require more sophisticated actions from players, who must respond to these events quickly and correctly to avoid a negative effect, such as being teleported across the map or taking damage. Players are usually rewarded for responding correctly to random events.[46] Community RuneScape players represent a wide range of nationalities and ages. Most players speak English to some extent. Players who speak languages other than English tend to gravitate to servers populated by other players who speak the same language; some worlds have larger numbers of players who speak Spanish, Dutch, French, German, or other languages. It is not uncommon, however, to see many languages on the chat screen throughout RuneScape. A German translation of RuneScape has recently been released as an open beta.[25][26] A set of official forums created entirely by Jagex programmers is available to players on the RuneScape website. On the forums, players are able to participate in game discussions, play player-made forum games, make arrangements to buy or sell items, and interact with the community. Free players can read the forums, but posting on them is reserved for paying members. The RuneScape forums are quite diverse, allowing thousands of players to access them at any given time. Each forum has its own specific list of rules enforced by forum moderators.[47] Players can submit questions via an e-mail address listed on the website to any non-player character in the game. Selected letters are answered in an update called Postbag from the Hedge, typically at the end of each month. This feature began on 26 September 2005 and has since become one of the most accessed pages of the site. Beginning 24 September 2002, players could submit questions to the RuneScape gods; however, this feature was discontinued on 9 December 2004.[48] Players can also submit original RuneScape related artwork, some of which is displayed in a gallery on the RuneScape website. Media featured have included sculpture, comics, drawings, and paintings.[49] Many RuneScape fansites have been established by players, none of which are supported or recognized by Jagex. In order to provide players with an alternative, official site to get the information they want or need, Jagex introduced the Knowledge Base,[50] which offers information on gameplay, the main RuneScape rules, and account security.[51] However, at least one major fansite has criticised Jagex for not recognising fansites' contributions to the development of its game.[52] RuneScape has a player economy based largely around items produced using skills. Raw materials are collected using the extracting skills, such as fishing, and are processed into more advanced materials with processing skills, such as cooking. The products produced by processing skills, such as armour or food, are often sold and used by players in combat. Some players engage in arbitrage, commonly referred to as merchanting, in order to turn a profit in game by buying and selling items. Historically, inflation has caused some instability in the game economy. Inflation is caused by a variety of factors, including the large number of resources put into the game by macroing.[53] Rules and cheating RuneScape moderator crowns.Jagex has put in place a number of rules for player conduct, such as rules against offensive language, scamming, and bug abuse.[54] To enforce the rules, RuneScape uses three types of moderators: Jagex moderators, who are actual Jagex employees; player moderators, who are trusted ordinary players who enforce the rules in the game; and forum moderators, who are trusted players who police the game forums. On the forums, Jagex moderators are identified by gold crowns and backgrounds on their posts while forum moderators have green crowns and backgrounds; in game, Jagex moderators have gold crowns next to their names in chat while player moderators have silver crowns. In addition, any player has the ability to report rule-breaking using a "report abuse" feature; misuse of this feature can result in action being taken against the reporter.[55] The effectiveness of Jagex's hunt on abusers has been debated by Twitchguru.[56] There are also rules prohibiting the use of third-party software to play the game, known as macroing, and the sale of game items for real money, known as real-world or real-money trading.[54] In the early days of the game, most cheaters were individual players using special programs that exploited weaknesses in the game's client-server communications by sending false data to the server. In response, Jagex made direct interaction with the client very difficult. Players then began using macro programs to automate mouse clicks for repetitive tasks. Random events, requiring human reaction and decision making, are one method Jagex employs to attempt to disrupt such programs. According to Jagex, many cheaters are now based in game sweatshops in East Asia, making gold to sell to players for real-world money, an issue in many other MMORPGs. In response, Jagex issued a statement condemning real-world trading, which had already been against the rules. In the statement, they also claimed that they were seizing billions of gold and banning thousands of accounts every week for cheating. Nevertheless, real-world trading and macroing activities still continue.[57][58] Reception A study by Brunel University claims that playing RuneScape, in some ways, can be beneficial to players. It can instruct players about working hard to achieve goals and that the nature of most games, including RuneScape, can teach teenagers vital skills as they enter the labour market.[59] As of December 2003, RuneScape was one of the fastest growing out of all of the MMORPGs, having a userbase fifty percent larger than that of EverQuest.[60] The game is praised for its free play abilities. JustRPG summarised the game with "In short, the game of Runescape is a fun, addictive game, and while the graphics may not be perfect, for a game written in Java, they aren't bad. The skills are varied, the community is alright, and it'll eat up your time if you aren't careful," giving it a score of 83%.[61] The Yahoo Buzz Log states that "while it may not be as easy on the eyes as some other popular online RPG games, like World of Warcraft, City of Heroes, or EverQuest, RuneScape is still a lot better way to kill time than pushing around cells in a spreadsheet."[62] PC Gamer UK in December 2003; states that while the "traditional RPG values of questing, slaying monsters and developing your character in a familiar medieval setting" won't "have the big boys trembling in their +2 Boots of Subscriber Gathering," this is offset by the game's accessibility through a web browser, "compounded by a version of the game that allows free adventuring before players upgrade to a members account," describing the game as "an unsurprising success."[63] References ^ a b c d Radd, David (2006-07-17). WildTangent Explores RuneScape. GameDaily BIZ. Retrieved on 2006-05-03. ^ RuneScape reaches one million members!. Jagex (2006-05-04). Retrieved on 2007-05-13. ^ MMO games on the rise. BBC News (2007-03-20). Retrieved on 2007-06-19. ^ Jagex Software (Advertising). Jagex. Retrieved on 2007-05-26. ^ Game On!. PlayStation Society (2007). Retrieved on 2007-01-28. ^ Letters 16. RuneScape god letters. Jagex. Retrieved on 2006-03-11. ^ RuneScape world map [Image]. Jagex. URL accessed on 2006-06-15. ^ Eeeeediot (2007-12-02). Getting Around Guide. Tip.it General Guides. Rune Tips. Retrieved on 2007-01-28. ^ Wingfield, Nick. "The Knights of Networking; Online Fantasy Game RuneScape Has Dull Graphics, but It's Free, Luring Millions to Play, Mingle", Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, Inc., 2006-10-05, p. B.1. Retrieved on 2006-10-05. ^ DeviousMUD. DeviousMUD.tripod.com (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-11. ^ a b Dodson, Sean. "Life: Online: Rune to move: A modest, Cambridge-based company has taken on the giants and developed a popular online role-playing game." The Guardian, Manchester, UK 11 December 2003. ^ a b What is Jagex?. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-10, . ^ "The biggest update ever..." - RuneScape Game Updates News, 13 February 2003. Retrieved 15 June 2006. ^ RS2 Launched - RuneScape Game Updates News. Retrieved 30 July 2006 ^ a b "Nearly 5000 RS-classic accounts banned" - RuneScape Customer Support News, 12 January 2006. Retrieved 4 March 2006 ^ Game engine upgraded! (16 May 2006). RuneScape Game Updates News. Retrieved 27 June 2007. ^ Game Engine Update (26 June 2007). RuneScape Game Updates News. Retrieved on 27 June 2007. ^ "RuneScape on console "tempting", says MMO's creator". ComputerandVideoGames.com (05). Retrieved on 2007-07-05. ^ Jobs. Jagex Ltd.. Retrieved on 2006-12-12. ^ "Game-world locations renamed", "11 new worlds online", "5 new worlds in Stockholm, Sweden", "6 new Australian servers online!", "8 new worlds in Miami", and "New London servers". RuneScape Technical News (26 April 2005 through 20 November 2006). Retrieved on 13 April 2007. ^ "Singapore server relocated". RuneScape Technical News (25 August 2003). Retrieved 31 July 2007. ^ a b c How do I get started?. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-28. ^ "WildTangent Sells Ads in Runescape Online Game", MediaBuyerPlanner, 2006-07-13. Retrieved on 2006-08-08. ^ "Runescape:Rules of Conduct:Rule 15-Advert Blocking", RuneScape Knowledge Base, Jagex, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-08-11. ^ a b Jagex (2007). RuneScape: German Language Beta Launch. Jagex. Retrieved on 2007-02-14. ^ a b c Jagex (2007-02-07). Hereinspaziert - die Open Beta der deutschen Version beginnt! (German). Jagex. Retrieved on 2007-03-08. ^ a b Benefits for Members. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-17. ^ Cloud8976 (2005-03-30). RuneScape. GamersInfo. Retrieved on 2006-08-10. ^ "Wilderness Capes, and Changes" RuneScape Game Updates News, 22 February 2006. Retrieved 31 July 2006. ^ Easter 2006 Event. Sal's Realm of RuneScape (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-05. ^ Controls - Options RuneScape Knowledge Base. Retrieved 6 May 2007. ^ Skills. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ a b Fighting - The Basics. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-09. ^ Melee - The Basics. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ Magic - The Basics. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ Ranged - The Basics. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ Beginners' Guide. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex. Retrieved on 2007-03-27. ^ Capes of Accomplishment. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex. Retrieved 27 March 2007. ^ "Multi-part quest" - RuneScape Game Update News, 27 August 2002. Retrieved 18 March 2007. ^ RuneScape Quest List - A-M and N-Z. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex. Retrieved 27 March 2007. ^ "What is RuneScape?" RuneScape Knowledge Base. Jagex. Retrieved 27 March 2007. ^ "How to use the Bestiary" Tip.It, 22 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007. ^ mini-Games & Mini-Quests. Sal's Realm of RuneScape (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-09. ^ Wilderness Survival Guide. Sal's Realm of RuneScape (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-09. ^ Random Events Guide. RuneScape Tips (2006-07-13). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ Salmoneus (2006). Random Events. Sal's Realm of RuneScape. Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ RuneScape Forums: Code of Conduct. RuneScape Forums. Jagex (2006). Retrieved on 2006-10-14. ^ Letter Archives - Jagex. Retrieved 31 July 2006. ^ Letter and Picture Archives (The Players' Gallery). Jagex. Retrieved on 2007-02-25. ^ New Improved Game Guide Released!. RuneScape Website News. Jagex (2006-03-13). Retrieved on 2006. ^ Welcome to the RuneScape Knowledge Base. RuneScape Website. Jagex (2007-01-23). Retrieved on 2007. ^ "So Who Needs Fansites Anyway?". Rune Tips (2007-01-26). Retrieved on 2007. ^ The Price is Right! Or is it?. Tip.It Times. Tip.It (2007-04-13). Retrieved on 2007-05-24. ^ a b Rules of Conduct. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Retrieved 14 June 2007. ^ Player Safety. RuneScape Knowledge Base. Retrieved 14 June 2007. ^ RuneScape Exposed Part 2: Jagex Fiddles While RuneScape Burns. TwitchGuru (2007-04-02). ^ "AutoRune history". Retrieved 30 May 2007. ^ "Bots and real-world trading" (1 May 2007). RuneScape Customer Support News. Retrieved 30 May 2007. ^ "How gaming is all work and no play", BBC News, 2006-03-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. ^ "Rune to move.", Guardian Unlimited, 2003-12-11. Retrieved on 2006-08-08. ^ Gasperazzo, Wendy. Runescape. Just RPG. Retrieved on 2007-04-30. ^ Hurd, Gordon. "The Rundown on Runescape", Yahoo Buzz Log, 2006-05-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-08. ^ Sutherns, Mark. "Runescape 2: browser-based Goblin basher goes 3D.", PC Gamer UK, issue 129, Future Publishing, 2003-12, pp. 145. External links RuneScape Portal Official sites RuneScape - The official RuneScape website RuneScape German - The official German translation of the RuneScape website Jagex site - The official Jagex site Wikis Wikia has a wiki about this topic: RuneScape Wiki Wikia has a wiki about this topic: Dark RuneScape Wiki Top 3 Major fansites Rune HQ Zybez Rune Tips These articles are part of the RuneScape series: Combat • Gielinor • Gods • Skills • Andrew Gower • Jagex Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RuneScape" Categories: Semi-protected | Browser-based games | Java platform games | Massively multiplayer online role-playing games | Miniclip games | Multiplayer browser-based games | Online games | RuneScape ViewsArticle Discussion View source History Personal toolsSign in / create account Navigation Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article interaction About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Make a donation Help Search Toolbox What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Printable version Permanent link Cite this article In other languages العربية Català Česky Dansk Deutsch Español Esperanto Français Italiano עברית Lietuvių Magyar Nederlands 日本語 ‪Norsk (bokmål)‬ ‪Norsk (nynorsk)‬ Polski Português Русский Simple English Slovenščina Suomi Svenska Tiếng Việt 粵語 Žemaitėška 中文 This page was last modified 22:58, 10 August 2007. 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Views: 6996 hog406
Will Wright: Spore, birth of a game
 
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http://www.ted.com In a friendly, high-speed presentation, Will Wright demos his newest game, Spore, which promises to dazzle users even more than his previous masterpieces. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world's leading thinkers and doers are invited to give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes -- including speakers such as Jill Bolte Taylor, Sir Ken Robinson, Hans Rosling, Al Gore and Arthur Benjamin. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, and Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, politics and the arts. Watch the Top 10 TEDTalks on TED.com, at http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/top10
Views: 46722 TED
Steven Pinker: "The Stuff of Thought" | Talks at Google
 
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Renowned linguist Steven Pinker speaks at Google's Mountain View, CA, headquarters about his book "The Stuff of Thought." This event took place on September 24, 2007, as part of the [email protected] series. For more information about Steven Pinker, please visit http://pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/books/stuff/index.html
Views: 311812 Talks at Google
Polyworld: Using Evolution to Design Artificial Intelligence
 
01:06:40
Google Tech Talks November, 8 2007 ABSTRACT This presentation is about a potential shortcut to artificial intelligence by trading mind-design for world-design using artificial evolution. Evolutionary algorithms are a pump for turning CPU cycles into brain designs. With exponentially increasing CPU cycles while our understanding of intelligence is almost a flat-line, the evolutionary route to AI is a centerpiece of most Kurzweilian singularity scenarios. This talk introduces the Polyworld artificial life simulator as well as results from our ongoing attempt to evolve artificial intelligence and further the Singularity. Polyworld is the brain child of Apple Computer Distinguished Scientist Larry Yaeger, who remains the primary developer of Polyworld: http://www.beanblossom.in.us/larryy/Polyworld.html Speaker: Virgil Griffith Virgil Griffith is a first year graduate student in Computation and Neural Systems at the California Institute of Technology. On weekdays he studies evolution, computational neuroscience, and artificial life. He did computer security work until his first year of university when his work got him sued for sedition and espionage. He then decided that security was probably not safest field to be in and he turned his life to science.
Views: 199621 GoogleTechTalks
The Cognitive and Computational Neuroscience of Categorization, Novelty-Detec...
 
01:02:14
Google Tech Talks November, 15 2007 ABSTRACT Neurocomputational models provide fundamental insights towards understanding the human brain circuits for learning new associations and organizing our world into appropriate categories. In this talk I will review the information-processing functions of four interacting brain systems for learning and categorization: (1) the basal ganglia which incrementally adjusts choice behaviors using environmental feedback about the consequences of our actions, (2) the hippocampus which supports learning in other brain regions through the creation of new stimulus representations (and, hence, new similarity relationships) that reflect important statistical regularities in the environment, (3) the medial septum which works in a feedback-loop with the hippocampus, using novelty-detection to alter the rate at which stimulus representations are updated through experience, (4) the frontal lobes which provide for selective attention and executive control of learning and memory. The computational models to be described have been evaluated through a variety of empirical methodoligies including human functional brain imaging, studies of patients with localized brain damage due to injury or early-stage neurodegenerative diseases, behavioral genetic studies of naturally-occuring individual variability, as well as comparative lesion and genetic studies with rodents. Our applications of these models to engineering and computer science including automated anomaly detection systems for mechanical fault diagnosis on US Navy helicopters and submarines as well more recent contributions to the DoD's DARPA program for Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures (BICA). Speaker: Dr. Mark Gluck Mark Gluck is a Professor of Neuroscience at Rutgers University - Newark, co-director of the Rutgers Memory Disorders Project, and publisher of the public health newsletter, Memory Loss and the Brain. He works at the interface between neuroscience, psychology, and computer science, where his research focuses on the neural bases of learning and memory, and the consequences of memory loss due to aging, trauma, and disease. He is the co-author of "Gateway to Memory: An Introduction to Neural Network Models of the Hippocampus and Memory " (MIT Press, 2001) and a forthcoming undergraduate textbook, "Learning and Memory: From Brain to Behavior." He has edited several other books and has published over 60 scientific journal articles. His awards include the Distinguished Scientific Award for Early Career Contributions from the American Psychological Society and the Young Investigator Award for Cognitive and Neural Sciences from the Office of Naval Research. In 1996, he was awarded a NSF Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers by President Bill Clinton. For more information, see http://www.gluck.edu.
Views: 59930 GoogleTechTalks
Quantum Computing Day 1: Introduction to Quantum Computing
 
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Google Tech Talks December, 6 2007 ABSTRACT This tech talk series explores the enormous opportunities afforded by the emerging field of quantum computing. The exploitation of quantum phenomena not only offers tremendous speed-ups for important algorithms but may also prove key to achieving genuine synthetic intelligence. We argue that understanding higher brain function requires references to quantum mechanics as well. These talks look at the topic of quantum computing from mathematical, engineering and neurobiological perspectives, and we attempt to present the material so that the base concepts can be understood by listeners with no background in quantum physics. This first talk of the series introduces the basic concepts of quantum computing. We start by looking at the difference in describing a classical and a quantum mechanical system. The talk discusses the Turing machine in quantum mechanical terms and introduces the notion of a qubit. We study the gate model of quantum computing and look at the famous quantum algorithms of Deutsch, Grover and Shor. Finally we talk about decoherence and how it destroys superposition states which is the main obstacle to building large scale quantum computers. We clarify widely held misconceptions about decoherence and explain that environmental interaction tends to choose a basis in state space in which the system decoheres while leaving coherences in other coordinate systems intact. Speaker: Hartmut Neven
Views: 136714 GoogleTechTalks
Darfur
 
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Google Tech Talks November 8, 2006 ABSTRACT In 2004 Mark Brecke travelled for 5 weeks to Darfur and the refugee camps of Eastern Chad to photographically document the Darfur genocide. He will be presenting his photos, and sharing his remarkable stories. Credits: Speaker:Mark Brecke
Views: 3702 Google
Human Impact On The Environment
 
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Video about the influence that humans have and are having on our planet.
Views: 384928 epers
The Lunar Database: Supporting Lunar Landing Site...
 
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Google TechTalks April 27, 2006 Dr. Jennifer Heldmann Dr. Jennifer Heldmann is currently a planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center in the Space Science Division and at the SETI Institute in the Center for the Study of Life in the Universe. ABSTRACT NASA has announced plans to return to the Moon with both robotic and human exploration. Site selection is the keystone to lunar planning and drives the lunar program in terms of both near-term and long-term planning. To support site selection and ensure continued public support and enthusiasm for NASA's new lunar program, a comprehensive lunar database is needed to distribute lunar data and lunar data products in an easily accessible...
Views: 1778 Google
Markets and the Primal-Dual Paradigm
 
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Google Tech Talks June 1, 2007 ABSTRACT The notion of a ``market'' has undergone a paradigm shift with the Internet -- totally new and highly successful markets have been defined and launched by companies such as Google, Yahoo!, Amazon, MSN and Ebay. These markets are computationally intensive; indeed, this is just the beginning of a much larger revolution in which algorithmic considerations are bound to have an impact. In view of these new realities, the study of market equilibria, an important, though essentially non-algorithmic, theory within Mathematical Economics, needs to be revived and rejuvenated with new models, ideas, and an inherently algorithmic approach. Interestingly enough,...
Views: 1571 Google
Energy Crisis Management: New technology enables...
 
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Google Tech Talks November 13, 2006 ABSTRACT A new ultracapacitor technology from APCT (US-Ukrainian start-up) provides an efficient, low cost means of managing power delivery for applications ranging from hand held devices to hybrid vehicles and power generating systems of all types. When integrated into battery powered devices, the APCT technology can extend battery life by as much as 400%, lowering the cost of batteries and reducing hazardous waste streams. Fast charge/discharge cycling with 95% efficiency improves performance and lowers cost for fuel cell vehicles and hybrid electric automobiles. High energy density and hundreds of thousands of cycles provides critical load leveling...
Views: 6344 Google
Mapping Global Inequality
 
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Google Tech Talks May 2,2007 ABSTRACT ne of the great debates of our time concerns the gap between the rich and poor worlds and the influence of globalization on that gap. The UC Atlas of Global Inequality (http://ucatlas.ucsc.edu) mobilizes undergraduate and graduate students to research global inequality and poverty. The UC Atlas is the leading site in Google searches for 'global inequality'. It maps, graphs and provides academic background to a range of issues including health, economic globalization, income inequalities and trade. It has interactive mapping, graphing and tabulation giving access to data about inequality, individual country pages, a blog on the latest research and internet...
Views: 4574 Google
Lecture 38 Sanitary Sewerage System
 
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Lectures Series on Water & Waste Water Engineering by Prof C.Venkobachar, Prof. Ligy Philip, Prof. B. S. Murty Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in
Views: 39955 nptelhrd
Climate Change and Health
 
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Google Tech Talks October 30, 2006 Paul Epstein ABSTRACT Climate change has multiple direct and indirect consequences for human health. Heat waves affect health directly and are projected to take an increasing toll in developed and underdeveloped nations. The 2003 summer heatwave in Europe -- an event six standard deviations from the mean -- led to 21-35,000 excess deaths in five nations, extensive wildfires, crop failures, nuclear plant shutdowns and melted 10% of the Alpine glacial mass. This event and Hurricane Katrina in 2005 demonstrate that climate change and its impacts may be surprisingly non-linear. Credits: Speaker:Paul Epstein
Views: 17115 Google
Theory and Practice of Cryptography
 
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Google Tech Talks November, 28 2007 Topics include: Introduction to Modern Cryptography, Using Cryptography in Practice and at Google, Proofs of Security and Security Definitions and A Special Topic in Cryptography This talk is one in a series hosted by Google University: Wednesdays, 11/28/07 - 12/19/07 from 1-2pm Speaker: Steve Weis Steve Weis received his PhD from the Cryptography and Information Security group at MIT, where he was advised by Ron Rivest. He is a member of Google's Applied Security (AppSec) team and is the technical lead for Google's internal cryptographic library, KeyMaster.
Views: 111762 GoogleTechTalks
Javajumble on MSN!
 
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Here is a neat code that I found while I was searching through Javascript codes. Go to any website and enter the following address into the URL bar: javascript:R=0; x1=.1; y1=.05; x2=.25; y2=.24; x3=1.6; y3=.24; x4=300; y4=200; x5=300; y5=200; DI=document.images; DIL=DI.length; function A(){for(i=0; i-DIL; i++){DIS=DI[ i ].style; DIS.position='absolute'; DIS.left=Math.sin(R*x1+i*x2+x3)*x4+x5; DIS.top=Math.cos(R*y1+i*y2+y3)*y4+y5}R++}setInterval('A()',5); void(0); Now click the "GO" button and watch what happens. Tell your friends! 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B.I.G. & Nas Together 1995 porn x-rated shag sex un real totally david michael williams craig hill steep forever and ever amen i have to thank someone macromedia how to make money how to make cash prostitute fat ass chick boobs riding cock christiano ronaldo sir alex ferguson football american football rugby tennis albow extreme water polo table tennis water foozball idiots crack croquet harr hill tv burp living in the uk casino royale casino porn house car tree garden chair blower blow fan computer computer screen stool glass cabinet blind blind plastic painting dad mum sister wire itch dots bird statue water ribena baked beans heinze baked beans 52 varieties tamato sauce ketchup banana wwf wrestling chick cups mugs bush presidant tony blair maggy thatcher margret eton toby procter dyson perrins high school Dyson Perrins High School The Chase High School Hanely Castle High School primary school leigh and bransford primary school cheltenhem chris hewwit chris hewitt chris short murray lampitt tony lake cafful robbo steve may dec hubbard joe forseigh joe hooper anthony hitchens nick lancet jason jackson karl price becky simmonds chris ( more ) MCHammer24216 (more) (less) costco craigs list craigslist dane cook dictionary disturbed dog dogpile dogs dogs for sale driving directions ebay ebay.com ebony eminem eminem superman emma watson emoticons for msn eragon espn eva green eva longoria evanescence fall out boy family guy fergalicious fergie first name meanings flight simulator free games free music downloads free online games free search funny funny videos game cheats for ps2 games games play gift baskets gift ideas girl girls google google earth google.com gospel music lyrics green day gwen stefani hannah montana harry potter hi high school musical hilary duff hinder home depot home video hot hotmail hotmail.com how to save a life ipod ipod nano irreplaceable janet jackson jenna jenna jameson jennifer aniston jennifer aniston sedu hairstyles jennifer lopez jennifer lopez sedu hairstyles jenny mccarthy jessica alba jessica simpson jewelry jim jones jingle bell rock jojo jokes jordan capri justin timberlake kate beckinsale katie price kelly blue book kids kmart korn laptops lil wayne limewire lindsay lohan lingerie linkin park lips of an angel love lowes ls magazine ludacris lyrics lyrics music mad world manga map quest mapquest maps mariah carey mature meaning of names metallica models movies mp3 players msn msn.com music music lyrics my chemical romance my space myspace myspace layouts myspace login myspace.com naruto nfl jerseys nickelback nintendo wii nudism nudist nudists obituaries one night in paris online games overstock.com pam anderson pamela anderson panic at the disco panties pantyhose paris hilton pc game cheats people search pink play game play games play the game lyrics playstaion2 cheats playstation game cheats playstation2 game cheats poetry pokemon pornotube ps 2 game cheats ps2 cheats codes psp pthc radio stations raven riley rihanna ringtones road map runescape salaries sams club santa search engine search engines sears sedu beauty tips sedu hair styles shakira shannon elizabeth slipknot smack that snow solia hair styling song lyrics south park southwest airlines spears staples stocking stuffers system of a down tara reid target target.com tenacious d tera patrick terrier test text messages the game thong thongs three days grace tony hawk topless torrie wilson toys r us trish stratus triviabucks vida guerra walk it out walmart walmart.com we fly high we live together weather webkinz wedding speech weird al weird al yankovic white and nerdy white pages wicked weasel wii wikipedia wind it up women wwe The Notorious B.I.G. & Nas Together 1995 porn x-rated shag sex un real totally david michael williams craig hill steep forever and ever amen i have to thank someone macromedia how to make money how to make cash prostitute fat ass chick boobs riding cock christiano ronaldo sir alex ferguson football american football rugby tennis albow extreme water polo table tennis water foozball idiots crack croquet harr hill tv burp living in the uk casino royale casino porn house car tree garden chair blower blow fan computer computer screen stool glass cabinet blind blind plastic painting dad mum sister wire itch dots bird statue water ribena baked beans heinze baked beans 52 varieties tamato sauce ketchup banana wwf wrestling chick cups mugs bush presidant tony blair maggy thatcher margret eton toby procter dyson perrins high school Dyson Perrins High School The Chase High School Hanely Castle High School primary school leigh and bransford primary school cheltenhem chris hewwit chris hewitt chris short murray lampitt tony lake cafful robbo steve may dec hubbard joe forseigh joe hooper anthony hitchens nick lancet jason jackson karl price becky simmonds chris ( more ) MCHammer24216 (more) (less) lonelygirl15 renetto linerider line rider noob runescape rune scape newb noob hack hacked hacker bots bot virus cool The following long entry about Fight Club also has no significant purpose. It is used to get more tags. Every one please show ur mates and leave comments, i want some advice, critisism, jst tell me wut u thot this is an amazing video fo me drawing a fight club poster on ms paint, took around forty minutes all together, the video skips a bit, for examply whn i draw brad pitt's eye, but it does not affect the whole thing at all, took a while to learn how to do this well, but i think it turned out quite well, clockwork orange, reservoir dogs, pulp fiction, brad pitt, edward norton, electric aylum art, Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. The plot is based around an unnamed protagonist who struggles with his growing discomfort with consumerism and changes in the state of masculinity in American culture. In an attempt to overcome this, he creates an underground fighting club as a radical form of psychotherapy. It was made into a movie of the same name in 1999 by director David Fincher. The movie became a pop culture phenomenon. In the wake of the film's popularity, the novel has become a target of criticism, mainly for its explicit depictions of violence. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Plot summary 3 Characters in Fight Club 4 Motifs 5 Subtext 6 Literary significance and criticism 7 Fight Club in pop culture 8 Awards 9 U.S. editions 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links [edit] History When Palahniuk made his first attempt at publishing a novel (Invisible Monsters) publishers rejected it for being too disturbing. This led him to work on Fight Club, which he wrote as an attempt to disturb the publisher even more for rejecting him. Palahniuk wrote this story while working as a diesel mechanic for Freightliner. After initially publishing it as a short story (which became chapter 6 of the novel) in the compilation Pursuit of Happiness, Palahniuk expanded it into a full novel, which, contrary to what he expected, the publisher was willing to publish.[2] While the original, hardcover edition of the book received positive reviews and some awards, it had a short shelf life. Nevertheless, the book had made its way to Hollywood, where interest in adapting it to film was growing. It was eventually adapted in 1999 by screenwriter Jim Uhls and director David Fincher. The film was a box office disappointment (although it was #1 at the U.S. box office in its first weekend) and critical reaction was mostly favorable, but a cult following soon emerged as the DVD of the film was popular upon release. As a result of the film, the original hardcover edition became a collector's item.[3] This film is now widely considered to be a defining work and an uncompromising critique of humanity's loss of identity through mass consumerism. Two paperback rereleases of the novel, one in 1999 and the other in 2004 (the latter of which begins with an introduction by the author about the conception and popularity of both the novel and the movie), were later made. This success helped launch Palahniuk's career as a popular novelist, as well as establish a writing style that would appear in many of his future novels. Despite popular belief, Palahniuk was not inspired to write the novel by any actual fight club. The club itself was based on a series of fights that Palahniuk got into over previous years (most notably one that he got into during a camping trip).[4] Even though he has mentioned this in many interviews, Palahniuk is still often approached by fans wanting to know where their local fight club takes place. Palahniuk insists that there is no real, singular organization like the one in his book. He does admit however that some fans have mentioned to him that some fight clubs (albeit much smaller than the one in the novel) exist or previously existed (some having existed long before the novel was written). Also, in the introduction to the current edition of the novel, Palahniuk refers to a few of the many actual instances of mischief being carried out in the style of fight club, most notably, a "Waiter from one of London's two finest restaurants" alleging that he ejaculated into Margaret Thatcher's food on multiple occasions. Many other events in the novel were also based on events that Palahniuk himself had experienced. The support groups that the narrator attends are based on support groups to which the author brought terminally ill people as part of a volunteer job he did for a local hospital. Project Mayhem is loosely based on the Cacophony Society, of which Palahniuk is a member. Various events and characters are based on friends of the author. Other events came as a result of stories told to him by various people he had talked to.[5] This method of combining various stories from various people into novels has become a common way of writing novels for Palahniuk ever since. Outside of Palahniuk's professional and personal life, the novel's impact has been felt elsewhere. Several individuals in various locations of the United States (and possibly in other countries), ranging from teenagers to people in technical careers, have set up their own fight clubs based on the one mentioned in the novel.[6] Some of Tyler's on-the-job pranks (such as food tampering) have been repeated by fans of the book (although these same pranks existed well before the novel was published). Palahniuk eventually documented this phenomenon in his essay "Monkey Think, Monkey Do",[7] which was published in his book Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories, as well as in the introduction to the 2004 paperback edition of Fight Club. Other fans of the book have been inspired to non-anti-social activity as well; Palahniuk has claimed that fans tell him that they have been inspired to go back to college after reading the book.[2] Other than the film, a few other adaptations have been attempted. In 2004 Fight Club was in development as a musical, developed by Palahniuk, Fincher, and Trent Reznor.[8] Brad Pitt, who played the role of Tyler Durden in the film, expressed interest in being involved. A video game loosely based on the film was published by Vivendi Universal Games in 2004, receiving poor reviews from gaming critics (see Fight Club (video game)). [edit] Plot summary The book centers on a nameless narrator who hates his job and his life. The narrator works for a car company, also unnamed, organizing product recalls on defective models if, and only if, the cost of the recall is less than the cost of out-of-court settlements paid to relatives of the deceased (which parallels the 1970s story of the Ford Pinto's safety problems and recall). At the same time, he is becoming disenchanted with the "nesting instinct"[9] of consumerism that has absorbed his life, forcing him to define himself by the furniture, clothes, and other material things that he owns. This dissatisfaction, combined with his frequent business trips across multiple time zones, disturb him to the point that he suffers from chronic insomnia. At the recommendation of his physician (who does not consider his insomnia to be a serious ailment), the narrator goes to a support group for men with testicular cancer to "see what real suffering is like". After finding that crying at these support groups and listening to emotional outpourings from the suffering allows him to sleep at night, he becomes dependent on them. At the same time, he befriends a cancer victim named Bob. Although he does not really suffer from any of the ailments that the other attendants have, he is never caught being a "tourist" until he meets Marla Singer, a woman who also attends support groups for alternative reasons. Her presence reflects the narrator's "tourism", and only reminds him that he doesn't belong at the support groups. He begins to hate Marla for keeping him from crying, and therefore from sleeping. After a short confrontation, they begin going to separate support groups in order to avoid meeting again. Shortly before this incident, his life changes radically upon meeting Tyler Durden, a beach artist who works low-paying jobs at night in order to perform deviant behavior on the job. After his confrontation with Marla, the narrator's condo is destroyed by an explosion and he asks Tyler if he can stay at his house. Tyler agrees, but asks for something in return, in a now-famous line: "I want you to hit me as hard as you can."[10] The resulting fight in a bar's parking lot attracts more disenchanted males, and a new form of support group, the first "Fight Club," is born. The fight club becomes a new type of therapy through bare-knuckle fighting, controlled by a set of rules: You don't talk about fight club. You don't talk about fight club.[11] When someone says stop, or goes limp, even if he's just faking it, the fight is over.[12] Only two guys to a fight. One fight at a time. They fight without shirts or shoes. The fights go on as long as they have to. If this is your first night at fight club, you have to fight. -- Fight Club, pages 48-50[13] Later in the book the mechanic tells the narrator two new rules to fight club. The first new rule is that nobody is the center of fight club except for the two men fighting. The second new rule is that fight club will always be free. Meanwhile, Tyler rescues Marla from a suicide attempt and the two initiate an affair that confounds the narrator. Throughout this affair, Marla is mostly unaware of the existence of fight club, and completely unaware of Tyler and the narrator's interaction with one another.[14] As the fight club's membership grows (and, unbeknownst to the narrator, spreads to other cities across the country), Tyler begins to use it to spread anti-consumerist ideas and recruits its members to participate in increasingly elaborate attacks on corporate America. This was originally the narrator's idea, but Tyler takes control from him. Tyler eventually gathers the most devoted fight club members (referred to as "space monkeys") and forms "Project Mayhem", a cult-like organization that trains itself as an army to bring down modern civilization. This organization, like the fight club, is controlled by a set of rules: You don't ask questions. You don't ask questions. No excuses. No lies. You have to trust Tyler. -- Fight Club, pages 119, 122, 125[15] The narrator starts off as a loyal participant in Project Mayhem, seeing it as the next step for fight club. However, he becomes uncomfortable with the increasing destructiveness of their activities after it results in the death of Bob. As the narrator endeavors to stop Tyler and his followers, he learns that he is Tyler;[16] Tyler is not a separate person, but a separate personality. As the narrator struggled with his hatred for his job and his consumerist lifestyle, his mind began to form a new personality that was able to escape from the problems of his normal life. The final straw came when he met Marla; Tyler was truly born as a distinct personality when the narrator's unconscious desire for Marla clashed with his conscious hatred for her. Having come to the surface, Tyler's personality has been slowly taking over the narrator's mind, which he planned to take over completely by making the narrator's real personality more like his. The narrator's bouts of insomnia had actually been Tyler's personality surfacing; Tyler would be active whenever the narrator was "sleeping". This allowed Tyler to manipulate the narrator into helping him create fight club; Tyler learned recipes for creating explosives when he was in control, and used this knowledge to blow up his own condo. The narrator also learns that Tyler plans to blow up the Parker-Morris building (the fictional "tallest building in the world") in the downtown area of the city using homemade bombs created by Project Mayhem. The actual reason for the explosion is to destroy the nearby national museum. During the explosion, Tyler plans to die as a martyr for Project Mayhem, taking the narrator's life as well. Realizing this, the narrator sets out to stop Tyler, although Tyler is always thinking ahead of him. In his attempts to stop Tyler, he makes peace with Marla (who always knew the narrator as Tyler) and explains to her that he is not Tyler Durden. The narrator is eventually forced to confront Tyler on the roof of the building. The narrator is held captive at gunpoint by Tyler, forced to watch the destruction wrought on the museum by Project Mayhem. Marla comes to the roof with one of the support groups. Tyler vanishes, because "Tyler was his hallucination, not hers." [17] With Tyler gone, the narrator waits for the bomb to explode and kill him. However, the bomb malfunctions because Tyler mixed paraffin into the explosives, which "never, ever works." Still alive and holding the gun that Tyler used to carry on him, the narrator decides to make the first decision that is truly his own: he puts the gun in his mouth and shoots himself. Some time later, he awakens in a mental institution, believing that he is dead and has gone to heaven. The book ends with members of Project Mayhem who work at the institution telling the narrator that their plans still continue, and that they are expecting Tyler to come back. [edit] Characters in Fight Club Narrator Some fans of the film refer to the narrator as "Jack", which is in reference to a scene in which he reads stories written from the perspective of a man's organs (e.g. "Jack's medulla oblongata"); the protagonists' lines in the official movie script also use the name "Jack" to denote them. Furthermore, a number of props from the film (such as a paycheck for the narrator) have the name "Jack Moore" on them, indicating that members of the film's crew also thought the narrator's name was Jack. The name "Jack" was "Joe" in the novel, which was changed in the film to avoid conflicts with Reader's Digest over the use of the name (the articles read by the narrator were featured in the magazine). The narrator of Fight Club set a precedent for the protagonists of later novels by Palahniuk, especially in the case of male protagonists, as they often shared his anti-heroic and transgressive behavior. Tyler Durden A neo-luddite, nihilist with a strong hatred for consumer culture. "Because of his nature"[18], Tyler works night jobs where he causes problems for the companies; he also makes soap to supplement his income and create the ingredients for his bomb making which will be put to work later with his fight club. He is the co-founder of fight club (it was his idea to have the fight that led to it). He later launches Project Mayhem, from which he and the members make various attacks on consumerism. Tyler is blond, as by the narrator's comment "in his everything-blond way." The unhinged but magnetic Tyler could also be considered an antihero (especially since he and the narrator are technically the same person), although he becomes the antagonist of the novel later in the story. Few characters like Tyler have appeared in later novels by Palahniuk, though the character of Oyster from Lullaby shares many similarities. Marla Singer A woman that the narrator meets during a support group. The narrator no longer receives the same release from the groups when he realizes Marla is faking her problems just like he is. After he leaves the groups, he meets her again when she meets Tyler and becomes his lover. She is a nymphomaniac, and she shares many of Tyler's thoughts on consumer culture. In later novels by Palahniuk in which the protagonist is male, a female character similar to Marla has also appeared. Marla and these other female characters have helped Palahniuk to add romantic themes into his novels. Robert "Bob" Paulson A man that the narrator meets at a support group for testicular cancer. A former bodybuilder, Bob lost his testicles to cancer caused by the steroids he used to bulk up his muscles, and had to undergo testosterone injections; this resulted in his body increasing its estrogen, causing him to grow large breasts (Gynecomastia) ("Bitch-tits") and develop a softer voice. The narrator befriends Bob and, after leaving the groups, meets him again in fight club. Bob's death later in the story while carrying out an assignment for Project Mayhem causes the narrator to turn against Tyler, because the members of Project Mayhem treat it as a trivial matter instead of a tragedy. When the narrator explains that the dead man had a name and was a real person, a member of Project Mayhem points out that only in death do members of Project Mayhem have a name. The unnamed member begins chanting, "his name was Robert Paulson", and this phrase becomes a meme and mantra that the narrator encounters later on in the story multiple times. This differs from the book which only states that people in other fight clubs were chanting "Robert Paulson" for the same reason as mentioned above. When the narrator goes to a fight club to shut it down for this reason, Tyler orders them to make him a "homework assignment". [edit] Motifs At two points in the novel, the narrator claims he wants to "wipe [his] ass with the Mona Lisa"; a mechanic who joins fight club also repeats this to him in one scene.[19] This motif shows his desire for chaos, later explicitly expressed in his urge to "destroy something beautiful". Additionally, he mentions at one point that "Nothing is static. Even the Mona Lisa is falling apart."[20] University of Calgary literary scholar Paul Kennett claims that this want for chaos is a result of an Oedipus complex, as the narrator, Tyler, and the mechanic all show disdain for their fathers.[21] This is most explicitly stated in the scene that the mechanic appears in: The mechanic says, "If you're male and you're Christian and living in America, your father is your model for God. And if you never know your father, if your father bails out or dies or is never at home, what do you believe about God? ... How Tyler saw it was that getting God's attention for being bad was better than getting no attention at all. Maybe because God's hate is better than His indifference. If you could be either God's worst enemy or nothing, which would you choose? We are God's middle children, according to Tyler Durden, with no special place in history and no special attention. Unless we get God's attention, we have no hope of damnation or redemption. Which is worse, hell or nothing? Only if we're caught and punished can we be saved. "Burn the Louvre," the mechanic says, "and wipe your ass with the Mona Lisa. This way at least, God would know our names." -- Fight Club, page 141[22] Kennett further argues that Tyler wants to use this chaos to change history so that "God's middle children" will have some historical significance, whether or not this significance is "damnation or redemption".[23] This will figuratively return their absent fathers, as judgement by future generations will replace judgement by their fathers. After reading stories written from the perspective of the organs of a man named Joe, the narrator begins using similar quotations to describe his feelings, often replacing organs with feelings and things involved in his life. The narrator often repeats the line "I know this because Tyler knows this." This is used to foreshadow the novel's major plot twist in which Tyler is revealed to be the same person as the narrator. The color cornflower blue first appears as the color of an icon on the narrator's boss's computer.[20] Later, it is mentioned that his boss has eyes of the same color.[24] These mentions of the color are the first of many uses of cornflower blue in Palahniuk's books, which all feature the color at some point in the text. The theme of masculinity is also a motif throughout the book. Different symbols lead to this reoccurring theme, such as violence, and testes. Fighting is perceived as a masculine characteristic. [edit] Subtext Throughout the novel, Palahniuk uses the narrator and Tyler to comment on how people in modern society try to find meaning in their lives through commercial culture. Several lines in the novel make b Paint (formerly Paintbrush for Windows) is a simple graphics painting program that has been included with almost all versions of Microsoft Windows since its first release. It is often referred to as MS Paint or Microsoft Paint. The program opens and saves files as Windows bitmap (24-bit, 256 color, 16 color, and monochrome, all with the .bmp extension), JPEG, GIF (without animation or transparency, although the Windows 98 version and a Windows 95 upgrade did support the latter), PNG (without alpha channel), and TIFF. The program can be in color mode or two-color black-and-white, but there is no grayscale mode. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Features 3 Support for indexed palettes 4 Versions 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 External links [edit] History The first version of Paint was introduced with the first version of Windows, Windows 1.0. This version only supported the MSP file format. This format is no longer supported by newer versions of Paint, along with PCX and RLE. Older versions cannot open or edit PNG files, and can only open GIF, JPEG, and TIFF files with a graphics filter for the specific file type. In Windows 95, a new version of Paint was introduced. The same icons and color palette continued to be used through Windows XP. An early version of the program, as bundled with Windows 3.1. (It was still known as Paintbrush at this stage.)In the Windows 98, Windows 2000 or Windows Me versions of Paint, images could be saved in JPEG and GIF formats if the necessary Microsoft graphics filters were installed, usually by another Microsoft application such as Microsoft Office or Microsoft PhotoDraw. Also, the canvas size was expanded automatically when larger images were opened or pasted. In Windows XP and later versions, Paint is based on GDI+ [1] and therefore, images can be natively saved as JPEG, GIF, TIFF and PNG without requiring additional graphics filters. However, alpha channel transparency is still not supported because the GDI+ version of Paint can only handle up to 24-bit depth images. Also, since another accessory, Imaging, was discontinued in Windows XP, support for acquiring images from a scanner or a digital camera was also added to Paint. However, the tertiary color function, used for creating GIF files with a transparent background, was removed. Also, the ability to save and load palette colors to and from .pal files was removed. In Windows Vista, the toolbar icons and default color palette have been updated. Also, an increased number of undo levels, a zoom slider, and a crop function have been added. [edit] Features Recent versions of Paint allow the user to pick up to three colors at a time: the primary color (left mouse click), secondary color (right mouse click), and tertiary color (control key + any mouse click). MS Paint ToolboxThe program comes with the following options in its Tool Box (from left to right in image): Free-Form Select Select Eraser/Color Eraser Fill With Color Pick Color Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded Rectangle Paint does not have the ability to automatically create color gradients. The Image menu offers the following options: Flip/Rotate, Stretch/Skew, Invert Colors, Image Attributes, Clear Image, and Draw Opaque. The "Colors" menu allows the user to Edit Colors (only menu option under Colors). The Edit Colors dialog box shows a 48-color palette and 12 custom color slots that can be edited. Clicking "Define Custom Colors" displays a square version of the color wheel that can select a custom color either with a crosshair cursor (like a "+"), by Hue/Saturation/Luminance, or by Red/Green/Blue values. The default colors in the Color Box are the following: Black, White, Gray, Silver, Maroon, Red, Olive, Yellow, Dark Green, Green, Teal, Cyan, Navy blue, Blue, Purple, Magenta, Old Gold, Lemon Yellow, Slate grey, Kelly green, Dark Carolina blue, Aquamarine, Midnight blue, Periwinkle, Violet-blue, Coral, Brown, and Pumpkin orange. A color palette is also available. Paint also has a few hidden functions (or Easter eggs) not mentioned in the help file: a stamp mode, trail mode and 10x zoom. For the stamp mode, the user can select part of the image, hold the control key, and move it to another part of the canvas. This, instead of cutting the piece out, creates a copy of it. The process can be repeated as many times as desired, as long as the control key is held down. The trail mode works exactly the same, but it uses the shift key instead of the control key. 10x zoom can be accessed by clicking on a horizontal line of about 2 pixels right below the 8x zoom button. The user may also draw straight horizontal, vertical, or diagonal lines with the pencil tool, without the need of the straight line tool, by holding the shift key and dragging the tool. Moreover, it is also possible to thicken (control key + +) or thin (control key + −) a line simultaneously while it is being drawn. To crop whitespace or eliminate parts of a graphic, the blue handle in the lower right corner can be clicked and dragged to increase canvas size or crop a graphic. The colors in the image can be inverted by pressing Ctrl+ I Older versions of Paint, such as the one bundled with Windows 3.1, allowed controlling the drawing cursor with the use of arrow keys as well as a color-replace brush, which replaced a single color underneath (more) (less)
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This was a test video costco craigs list craigslist dane cook dictionary disturbed dog dogpile dogs dogs for sale driving directions ebay ebay.com ebony eminem eminem superman emma watson emoticons for msn eragon espn eva green eva longoria evanescence fall out boy family guy fergalicious fergie first name meanings flight simulator free games free music downloads free online games free search funny funny videos game cheats for ps2 games games play gift baskets gift ideas girl girls google google earth google.com gospel music lyrics green day gwen stefani hannah montana harry potter hi high school musical hilary duff hinder home depot home video hot hotmail hotmail.com how to save a life ipod ipod nano irreplaceable janet jackson jenna jenna jameson jennifer aniston jennifer aniston sedu hairstyles jennifer lopez jennifer lopez sedu hairstyles jenny mccarthy jessica alba jessica simpson jewelry jim jones jingle bell rock jojo jokes jordan capri justin timberlake kate beckinsale katie price kelly blue book kids kmart korn laptops lil wayne limewire lindsay lohan lingerie linkin park lips of an angel love lowes ls magazine ludacris lyrics lyrics music mad world manga map quest mapquest maps mariah carey mature meaning of names metallica models movies mp3 players msn msn.com music music lyrics my chemical romance my space myspace myspace layouts myspace login myspace.com naruto nfl jerseys nickelback nintendo wii nudism nudist nudists obituaries one night in paris online games overstock.com pam anderson pamela anderson panic at the disco panties pantyhose paris hilton pc game cheats people search pink play game play games play the game lyrics playstaion2 cheats playstation game cheats playstation2 game cheats poetry pokemon pornotube ps 2 game cheats ps2 cheats codes psp pthc radio stations raven riley rihanna ringtones road map runescape salaries sams club santa search engine search engines sears sedu beauty tips sedu hair styles shakira shannon elizabeth slipknot smack that snow solia hair styling song lyrics south park southwest airlines spears staples stocking stuffers system of a down tara reid target target.com tenacious d tera patrick terrier test text messages the game thong thongs three days grace tony hawk topless torrie wilson toys r us trish stratus triviabucks vida guerra walk it out walmart walmart.com we fly high we live together weather webkinz wedding speech weird al weird al yankovic white and nerdy white pages wicked weasel wii wikipedia wind it up women wwe The Notorious B.I.G. & Nas Together 1995 porn x-rated shag sex un real totally david michael williams craig hill steep forever and ever amen i have to thank someone macromedia how to make money how to make cash prostitute fat ass chick boobs riding cock christiano ronaldo sir alex ferguson football american football rugby tennis albow extreme water polo table tennis water foozball idiots crack croquet harr hill tv burp living in the uk casino royale casino porn house car tree garden chair blower blow fan computer computer screen stool glass cabinet blind blind plastic painting dad mum sister wire itch dots bird statue water ribena baked beans heinze baked beans 52 varieties tamato sauce ketchup banana wwf wrestling chick cups mugs bush presidant tony blair maggy thatcher margret eton toby procter dyson perrins high school Dyson Perrins High School The Chase High School Hanely Castle High School primary school leigh and bransford primary school cheltenhem chris hewwit chris hewitt chris short murray lampitt tony lake cafful robbo steve may dec hubbard joe forseigh joe hooper anthony hitchens nick lancet jason jackson karl price becky simmonds chris ( more ) MCHammer24216 (more) (less) lonelygirl15 renetto linerider line rider noob runescape rune scape newb noob hack hacked hacker bots bot virus cool The following long entry about Fight Club also has no significant purpose. It is used to get more tags. Every one please show ur mates and leave comments, i want some advice, critisism, jst tell me wut u thot this is an amazing video fo me drawing a fight club poster on ms paint, took around forty minutes all together, the video skips a bit, for examply whn i draw brad pitt's eye, but it does not affect the whole thing at all, took a while to learn how to do this well, but i think it turned out quite well, clockwork orange, reservoir dogs, pulp fiction, brad pitt, edward norton, electric aylum art, Fight Club[1] (1996) is the first published novel by American author Chuck Palahniuk. The plot is based around an unnamed protagonist who struggles with his growing discomfort with consumerism and changes in the state of masculinity in American culture. In an attempt to overcome this, he creates an underground fighting club as a radical form of psychotherapy. It was made into a movie of the same name in 1999 by director David Fincher. The movie became a pop culture phenomenon. In the wake of the film's popularity, the novel has become a target of criticism, mainly for its explicit depictions of violence. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Plot summary 3 Characters in Fight Club 4 Motifs 5 Subtext 6 Literary significance and criticism 7 Fight Club in pop culture 8 Awards 9 U.S. editions 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External links [edit] History When Palahniuk made his first attempt at publishing a novel (Invisible Monsters) publishers rejected it for being too disturbing. This led him to work on Fight Club, which he wrote as an attempt to disturb the publisher even more for rejecting him. Palahniuk wrote this story while working as a diesel mechanic for Freightliner. After initially publishing it as a short story (which became chapter 6 of the novel) in the compilation Pursuit of Happiness, Palahniuk expanded it into a full novel, which, contrary to what he expected, the publisher was willing to publish.[2] While the original, hardcover edition of the book received positive reviews and some awards, it had a short shelf life. Nevertheless, the book had made its way to Hollywood, where interest in adapting it to film was growing. It was eventually adapted in 1999 by screenwriter Jim Uhls and director David Fincher. The film was a box office disappointment (although it was #1 at the U.S. box office in its first weekend) and critical reaction was mostly favorable, but a cult following soon emerged as the DVD of the film was popular upon release. As a result of the film, the original hardcover edition became a collector's item.[3] This film is now widely considered to be a defining work and an uncompromising critique of humanity's loss of identity through mass consumerism. Two paperback rereleases of the novel, one in 1999 and the other in 2004 (the latter of which begins with an introduction by the author about the conception and popularity of both the novel and the movie), were later made. This success helped launch Palahniuk's career as a popular novelist, as well as establish a writing style that would appear in many of his future novels. Despite popular belief, Palahniuk was not inspired to write the novel by any actual fight club. The club itself was based on a series of fights that Palahniuk got into over previous years (most notably one that he got into during a camping trip).[4] Even though he has mentioned this in many interviews, Palahniuk is still often approached by fans wanting to know where their local fight club takes place. Palahniuk insists that there is no real, singular organization like the one in his book. He does admit however that some fans have mentioned to him that some fight clubs (albeit much smaller than the one in the novel) exist or previously existed (some having existed long before the novel was written). Also, in the introduction to the current edition of the novel, Palahniuk refers to a few of the many actual instances of mischief being carried out in the style of fight club, most notably, a "Waiter from one of London's two finest restaurants" alleging that he ejaculated into Margaret Thatcher's food on multiple occasions. Many other events in the novel were also based on events that Palahniuk himself had experienced. The support groups that the narrator attends are based on support groups to which the author brought terminally ill people as part of a volunteer job he did for a local hospital. Project Mayhem is loosely based on the Cacophony Society, of which Palahniuk is a member. Various events and characters are based on friends of the author. Other events came as a result of stories told to him by various people he had talked to.[5] This method of combining various stories from various people into novels has become a common way of writing novels for Palahniuk ever since. Outside of Palahniuk's professional and personal life, the novel's impact has been felt elsewhere. Several individuals in various locations of the United States (and possibly in other countries), ranging from teenagers to people in technical careers, have set up their own fight clubs based on the one mentioned in the novel.[6] Some of Tyler's on-the-job pranks (such as food tampering) have been repeated by fans of the book (although these same pranks existed well before the novel was published). Palahniuk eventually documented this phenomenon in his essay "Monkey Think, Monkey Do",[7] which was published in his book Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories, as well as in the introduction to the 2004 paperback edition of Fight Club. Other fans of the book have been inspired to non-anti-social activity as well; Palahniuk has claimed that fans tell him that they have been inspired to go back to college after reading the book.[2] Other than the film, a few other adaptations have been attempted. In 2004 Fight Club was in development as a musical, developed by Palahniuk, Fincher, and Trent Reznor.[8] Brad Pitt, who played the role of Tyler Durden in the film, expressed interest in being involved. A video game loosely based on the film was published by Vivendi Universal Games in 2004, receiving poor reviews from gaming critics (see Fight Club (video game)). [edit] Plot summary The book centers on a nameless narrator who hates his job and his life. The narrator works for a car company, also unnamed, organizing product recalls on defective models if, and only if, the cost of the recall is less than the cost of out-of-court settlements paid to relatives of the deceased (which parallels the 1970s story of the Ford Pinto's safety problems and recall). At the same time, he is becoming disenchanted with the "nesting instinct"[9] of consumerism that has absorbed his life, forcing him to define himself by the furniture, clothes, and other material things that he owns. This dissatisfaction, combined with his frequent business trips across multiple time zones, disturb him to the point that he suffers from chronic insomnia. At the recommendation of his physician (who does not consider his insomnia to be a serious ailment), the narrator goes to a support group for men with testicular cancer to "see what real suffering is like". After finding that crying at these support groups and listening to emotional outpourings from the suffering allows him to sleep at night, he becomes dependent on them. At the same time, he befriends a cancer victim named Bob. Although he does not really suffer from any of the ailments that the other attendants have, he is never caught being a "tourist" until he meets Marla Singer, a woman who also attends support groups for alternative reasons. Her presence reflects the narrator's "tourism", and only reminds him that he doesn't belong at the support groups. He begins to hate Marla for keeping him from crying, and therefore from sleeping. After a short confrontation, they begin going to separate support groups in order to avoid meeting again. Shortly before this incident, his life changes radically upon meeting Tyler Durden, a beach artist who works low-paying jobs at night in order to perform deviant behavior on the job. After his confrontation with Marla, the narrator's condo is destroyed by an explosion and he asks Tyler if he can stay at his house. Tyler agrees, but asks for something in return, in a now-famous line: "I want you to hit me as hard as you can."[10] The resulting fight in a bar's parking lot attracts more disenchanted males, and a new form of support group, the first "Fight Club," is born. The fight club becomes a new type of therapy through bare-knuckle fighting, controlled by a set of rules: You don't talk about fight club. You don't talk about fight club.[11] When someone says stop, or goes limp, even if he's just faking it, the fight is over.[12] Only two guys to a fight. One fight at a time. They fight without shirts or shoes. The fights go on as long as they have to. If this is your first night at fight club, you have to fight. -- Fight Club, pages 48-50[13] Later in the book the mechanic tells the narrator two new rules to fight club. The first new rule is that nobody is the center of fight club except for the two men fighting. The second new rule is that fight club will always be free. Meanwhile, Tyler rescues Marla from a suicide attempt and the two initiate an affair that confounds the narrator. Throughout this affair, Marla is mostly unaware of the existence of fight club, and completely unaware of Tyler and the narrator's interaction with one another.[14] As the fight club's membership grows (and, unbeknownst to the narrator, spreads to other cities across the country), Tyler begins to use it to spread anti-consumerist ideas and recruits its members to participate in increasingly elaborate attacks on corporate America. This was originally the narrator's idea, but Tyler takes control from him. Tyler eventually gathers the most devoted fight club members (referred to as "space monkeys") and forms "Project Mayhem", a cult-like organization that trains itself as an army to bring down modern civilization. This organization, like the fight club, is controlled by a set of rules: You don't ask questions. You don't ask questions. No excuses. No lies. You have to trust Tyler. -- Fight Club, pages 119, 122, 125[15] The narrator starts off as a loyal participant in Project Mayhem, seeing it as the next step for fight club. However, he becomes uncomfortable with the increasing destructiveness of their activities after it results in the death of Bob. As the narrator endeavors to stop Tyler and his followers, he learns that he is Tyler;[16] Tyler is not a separate person, but a separate personality. As the narrator struggled with his hatred for his job and his consumerist lifestyle, his mind began to form a new personality that was able to escape from the problems of his normal life. The final straw came when he met Marla; Tyler was truly born as a distinct personality when the narrator's unconscious desire for Marla clashed with his conscious hatred for her. Having come to the surface, Tyler's personality has been slowly taking over the narrator's mind, which he planned to take over completely by making the narrator's real personality more like his. The narrator's bouts of insomnia had actually been Tyler's personality surfacing; Tyler would be active whenever the narrator was "sleeping". This allowed Tyler to manipulate the narrator into helping him create fight club; Tyler learned recipes for creating explosives when he was in control, and used this knowledge to blow up his own condo. The narrator also learns that Tyler plans to blow up the Parker-Morris building (the fictional "tallest building in the world") in the downtown area of the city using homemade bombs created by Project Mayhem. The actual reason for the explosion is to destroy the nearby national museum. During the explosion, Tyler plans to die as a martyr for Project Mayhem, taking the narrator's life as well. Realizing this, the narrator sets out to stop Tyler, although Tyler is always thinking ahead of him. In his attempts to stop Tyler, he makes peace with Marla (who always knew the narrator as Tyler) and explains to her that he is not Tyler Durden. The narrator is eventually forced to confront Tyler on the roof of the building. The narrator is held captive at gunpoint by Tyler, forced to watch the destruction wrought on the museum by Project Mayhem. Marla comes to the roof with one of the support groups. Tyler vanishes, because "Tyler was his hallucination, not hers." [17] With Tyler gone, the narrator waits for the bomb to explode and kill him. However, the bomb malfunctions because Tyler mixed paraffin into the explosives, which "never, ever works." Still alive and holding the gun that Tyler used to carry on him, the narrator decides to make the first decision that is truly his own: he puts the gun in his mouth and shoots himself. Some time later, he awakens in a mental institution, believing that he is dead and has gone to heaven. The book ends with members of Project Mayhem who work at the institution telling the narrator that their plans still continue, and that they are expecting Tyler to come back. [edit] Characters in Fight Club Narrator Some fans of the film refer to the narrator as "Jack", which is in reference to a scene in which he reads stories written from the perspective of a man's organs (e.g. "Jack's medulla oblongata"); the protagonists' lines in the official movie script also use the name "Jack" to denote them. Furthermore, a number of props from the film (such as a paycheck for the narrator) have the name "Jack Moore" on them, indicating that members of the film's crew also thought the narrator's name was Jack. The name "Jack" was "Joe" in the novel, which was changed in the film to avoid conflicts with Reader's Digest over the use of the name (the articles read by the narrator were featured in the magazine). The narrator of Fight Club set a precedent for the protagonists of later novels by Palahniuk, especially in the case of male protagonists, as they often shared his anti-heroic and transgressive behavior. Tyler Durden A neo-luddite, nihilist with a strong hatred for consumer culture. "Because of his nature"[18], Tyler works night jobs where he causes problems for the companies; he also makes soap to supplement his income and create the ingredients for his bomb making which will be put to work later with his fight club. He is the co-founder of fight club (it was his idea to have the fight that led to it). He later launches Project Mayhem, from which he and the members make various attacks on consumerism. Tyler is blond, as by the narrator's comment "in his everything-blond way." The unhinged but magnetic Tyler could also be considered an antihero (especially since he and the narrator are technically the same person), although he becomes the antagonist of the novel later in the story. Few characters like Tyler have appeared in later novels by Palahniuk, though the character of Oyster from Lullaby shares many similarities. Marla Singer A woman that the narrator meets during a support group. The narrator no longer receives the same release from the groups when he realizes Marla is faking her problems just like he is. After he leaves the groups, he meets her again when she meets Tyler and becomes his lover. She is a nymphomaniac, and she shares many of Tyler's thoughts on consumer culture. In later novels by Palahniuk in which the protagonist is male, a female character similar to Marla has also appeared. Marla and these other female characters have helped Palahniuk to add romantic themes into his novels. Robert "Bob" Paulson A man that the narrator meets at a support group for testicular cancer. A former bodybuilder, Bob lost his testicles to cancer caused by the steroids he used to bulk up his muscles, and had to undergo testosterone injections; this resulted in his body increasing its estrogen, causing him to grow large breasts (Gynecomastia) ("Bitch-tits") and develop a softer voice. The narrator befriends Bob and, after leaving the groups, meets him again in fight club. Bob's death later in the story while carrying out an assignment for Project Mayhem causes the narrator to turn against Tyler, because the members of Project Mayhem treat it as a trivial matter instead of a tragedy. When the narrator explains that the dead man had a name and was a real person, a member of Project Mayhem points out that only in death do members of Project Mayhem have a name. The unnamed member begins chanting, "his name was Robert Paulson", and this phrase becomes a meme and mantra that the narrator encounters later on in the story multiple times. This differs from the book which only states that people in other fight clubs were chanting "Robert Paulson" for the same reason as mentioned above. When the narrator goes to a fight club to shut it down for this reason, Tyler orders them to make him a "homework assignment". [edit] Motifs At two points in the novel, the narrator claims he wants to "wipe [his] ass with the Mona Lisa"; a mechanic who joins fight club also repeats this to him in one scene.[19] This motif shows his desire for chaos, later explicitly expressed in his urge to "destroy something beautiful". Additionally, he mentions at one point that "Nothing is static. Even the Mona Lisa is falling apart."[20] University of Calgary literary scholar Paul Kennett claims that this want for chaos is a result of an Oedipus complex, as the narrator, Tyler, and the mechanic all show disdain for their fathers.[21] This is most explicitly stated in the scene that the mechanic appears in: The mechanic says, "If you're male and you're Christian and living in America, your father is your model for God. And if you never know your father, if your father bails out or dies or is never at home, what do you believe about God? ... How Tyler saw it was that getting God's attention for being bad was better than getting no attention at all. Maybe because God's hate is better than His indifference. If you could be either God's worst enemy or nothing, which would you choose? We are God's middle children, according to Tyler Durden, with no special place in history and no special attention. Unless we get God's attention, we have no hope of damnation or redemption. Which is worse, hell or nothing? Only if we're caught and punished can we be saved. "Burn the Louvre," the mechanic says, "and wipe your ass with the Mona Lisa. This way at least, God would know our names." -- Fight Club, page 141[22] Kennett further argues that Tyler wants to use this chaos to change history so that "God's middle children" will have some historical significance, whether or not this significance is "damnation or redemption".[23] This will figuratively return their absent fathers, as judgement by future generations will replace judgement by their fathers. After reading stories written from the perspective of the organs of a man named Joe, the narrator begins using similar quotations to describe his feelings, often replacing organs with feelings and things involved in his life. The narrator often repeats the line "I know this because Tyler knows this." This is used to foreshadow the novel's major plot twist in which Tyler is revealed to be the same person as the narrator. The color cornflower blue first appears as the color of an icon on the narrator's boss's computer.[20] Later, it is mentioned that his boss has eyes of the same color.[24] These mentions of the color are the first of many uses of cornflower blue in Palahniuk's books, which all feature the color at some point in the text. The theme of masculinity is also a motif throughout the book. Different symbols lead to this reoccurring theme, such as violence, and testes. Fighting is perceived as a masculine characteristic. [edit] Subtext Throughout the novel, Palahniuk uses the narrator and Tyler to comment on how people in modern society try to find meaning in their lives through commercial culture. Several lines in the novel make b Paint (formerly Paintbrush for Windows) is a simple graphics painting program that has been included with almost all versions of Microsoft Windows since its first release. It is often referred to as MS Paint or Microsoft Paint. The program opens and saves files as Windows bitmap (24-bit, 256 color, 16 color, and monochrome, all with the .bmp extension), JPEG, GIF (without animation or transparency, although the Windows 98 version and a Windows 95 upgrade did support the latter), PNG (without alpha channel), and TIFF. The program can be in color mode or two-color black-and-white, but there is no grayscale mode. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Features 3 Support for indexed palettes 4 Versions 5 See also 6 Notes and references 7 External links [edit] History The first version of Paint was introduced with the first version of Windows, Windows 1.0. This version only supported the MSP file format. This format is no longer supported by newer versions of Paint, along with PCX and RLE. Older versions cannot open or edit PNG files, and can only open GIF, JPEG, and TIFF files with a graphics filter for the specific file type. In Windows 95, a new version of Paint was introduced. The same icons and color palette continued to be used through Windows XP. An early version of the program, as bundled with Windows 3.1. (It was still known as Paintbrush at this stage.)In the Windows 98, Windows 2000 or Windows Me versions of Paint, images could be saved in JPEG and GIF formats if the necessary Microsoft graphics filters were installed, usually by another Microsoft application such as Microsoft Office or Microsoft PhotoDraw. Also, the canvas size was expanded automatically when larger images were opened or pasted. In Windows XP and later versions, Paint is based on GDI+ [1] and therefore, images can be natively saved as JPEG, GIF, TIFF and PNG without requiring additional graphics filters. However, alpha channel transparency is still not supported because the GDI+ version of Paint can only handle up to 24-bit depth images. Also, since another accessory, Imaging, was discontinued in Windows XP, support for acquiring images from a scanner or a digital camera was also added to Paint. However, the tertiary color function, used for creating GIF files with a transparent background, was removed. Also, the ability to save and load palette colors to and from .pal files was removed. In Windows Vista, the toolbar icons and default color palette have been updated. Also, an increased number of undo levels, a zoom slider, and a crop function have been added. [edit] Features Recent versions of Paint allow the user to pick up to three colors at a time: the primary color (left mouse click), secondary color (right mouse click), and tertiary color (control key + any mouse click). MS Paint ToolboxThe program comes with the following options in its Tool Box (from left to right in image): Free-Form Select Select Eraser/Color Eraser Fill With Color Pick Color Magnifier Pencil Brush Airbrush Text Line Curve Rectangle Polygon Ellipse Rounded Rectangle Paint does not have the ability to automatically create color gradients. The Image menu offers the following options: Flip/Rotate, Stretch/Skew, Invert Colors, Image Attributes, Clear Image, and Draw Opaque. The "Colors" menu allows the user to Edit Colors (only menu option under Colors). The Edit Colors dialog box shows a 48-color palette and 12 custom color slots that can be edited. Clicking "Define Custom Colors" displays a square version of the color wheel that can select a custom color either with a crosshair cursor (like a "+"), by Hue/Saturation/Luminance, or by Red/Green/Blue values. The default colors in the Color Box are the following: Black, White, Gray, Silver, Maroon, Red, Olive, Yellow, Dark Green, Green, Teal, Cyan, Navy blue, Blue, Purple, Magenta, Old Gold, Lemon Yellow, Slate grey, Kelly green, Dark Carolina blue, Aquamarine, Midnight blue, Periwinkle, Violet-blue, Coral, Brown, and Pumpkin orange. A color palette is also available. Paint also has a few hidden functions (or Easter eggs) not mentioned in the help file: a stamp mode, trail mode and 10x zoom. For the stamp mode, the user can select part of the image, hold the control key, and move it to another part of the canvas. This, instead of cutting the piece out, creates a copy of it. The process can be repeated as many times as desired, as long as the control key is held down. The trail mode works exactly the same, but it uses the shift key instead of the control key. 10x zoom can be accessed by clicking on a horizontal line of about 2 pixels right below the 8x zoom button. The user may also draw straight horizontal, vertical, or diagonal lines with the pencil tool, without the need of the straight line tool, by holding the shift key and dragging the tool. Moreover, it is also possible to thicken (control key + +) or thin (control key + −) a line simultaneously while it is being drawn. To crop whitespace or eliminate parts of a graphic, the blue handle in the lower right corner can be clicked and dragged to increase canvas size or crop a graphic. The colors in the image can be inverted by pressing Ctrl+ I Older versions of Paint, such as the one bundled with Windows 3.1, allowed controlling the drawing cursor with the use of arrow keys as well as a color-replace brush, which replaced a single color underneath (more) (less)
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Google Tech Talks December 6, 2006 ABSTRACT Are we running out of planet? Was Malthus wrong? Do economies self-correct or self-destruct when operating as if resources are limitless? Can everyone on this planet live like a Chinese? A Costa Rican? A Canadian? Mathis Wackernagel, co-creator of the Ecological Footprint, explores these questions, and showcases applications from around the world with government agencies, NGOs, businesses, cities, highlighting how this tool helps make development sustainable. Since the 1980s, humanity's demand on ecological resources has exceeded what the Earth can renew. We are in a state of ecological overshoot, on an unsustainable path. We can reverse this trend...
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Google Tech Talks April 9, 2007 ABSTRACT While investigating the genetic workings of the microscopic worm, C. elegans, Mello and colleague Andrew Fire, PhD, of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, discovered RNAi, a natural but previously unrecognized process by which a certain form of RNA can be manipulated to silence—or interfere with—the expression of a selected gene. The discovery, published in the journal Nature in 1998, has had two extraordinary impacts on biological science. One is as a research tool: RNAi is now the state-of-the-art method by which scientists can knock out the expression of specific genes in cells, to thus define the biological functions of those genes. But just as...
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Seth Godin is the author of six bestsellers, including Permission Marketing, an Amazon Top 100 bestseller for a year and a Fortune Best Business Book. His newest book, All Marketers are Liars , has already made the Amazon Top 100 and has inspired its own blog. Seth is also a renowned speaker, and was recently chosen as one of "21 Speakers for the Next Century" by Successful Meetings Magazine and is consistently rated among the best speakers by the audiences he addresses. Seth was founder and CEO of Yoyodyne, an interactive direct marketing company, which Yahoo! acquired in late 1998. He holds an MBA from Stanford, is a contributing editor to Fast Company magazine, and was called "the Ultimate...
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Google TechTalks May 25, 2006 Ashok Jhunjhunwala Prof. Ashok Jhunjhunwala is Professor of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India and was department Chair till recently. He received his B.Tech degree from IIT, Kanpur, and his MS and PhD degrees from the University of Maine. From 1979 to 1981, he was with Washington State University as Assistant Professor. Since 1981, he has been teaching at IIT, Madras. ABSTRACT Dr Ashok Jhunjhunwala has significant expertise in incubating technology to make a difference for the masses in India. Dr. Jhunjhunwala leads the Telecommunications and Computer Networks group (TeNeT) at Indian Institute of Technology...
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