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Videos uploaded by user “MinuteEarth”
Why Do Rivers Curve?
 
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We're now on Patreon! Please support us at: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Can you find an oxbow lake in GoogleEarth? Share your findings (pictures or coordinates) on Twitter, Facebook and other social media using the hashtag #oxbowlake And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Narrated by: Emily Elert Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder "Oxbow" voiceovers by: Vanessa Hill: https://www.youtube.com/user/braincraftvideo Ever Salazar: https://www.youtube.com/user/EverST88 Antoine Coeur: https://www.youtube.com/user/MinutePourLaTerre ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Ferreira da Silva, A. M. (2006). On why and how do rivers meander. Howard, A. D. (2009). How to make a meandering river. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(41), 17245-17246. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/41/17245.full Howard, A. D., & Knutson, T. R. (1984). Sufficient conditions for river meandering: A simulation approach. Water Resources Research, 20(11), 1659-1667. http://erode.evsc.virginia.edu/papers/howard_meander_84.pdf Leopold, L. B., & Wolman, M. G. (1960). River meanders. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71(6), 769-793. https://www.usu.edu/jackschmidt/files/uploads/Fluvial_2013_Labs/Leopold_Wolman_1960.pdf Parker, H. (1996). River Meandering as Self-Organization Process. Science,271, 1710. http://www.f052.it/watch/927/meandering_river.pdf Rhoads, B. L., & Welford, M. R. (1991). Initiation of river meandering. Progress in Physical Geography, 15(2), 127-156. http://www.geog.illinois.edu/~brhoads/rhoads%20and%20welford%201991.pdf Schwenk, Jon. Interview. 9 July 2014. Seminara, G. (2006). Meanders. Journal of fluid mechanics, 554, 271-297. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=431272&fileId=S0022112006008925 Stølum, H. H. (1998). Planform geometry and dynamics of meandering rivers.Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110(11), 1485-1498. http://bruche.u-strasbg.fr/pages_protegees/pdf/stolum_1998.pdf ________________________ Video and Image Credits Waterfalls Cascading - Courtesy Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-6183704-stock-footage-waterfalls-cascading-down-a-rock-face-in-the-rocky-mountains-downward-pan.html Rio cauto Cuba - Public Domain Photo http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rio-cauto-cuba.JPG Tiger Leaping Gorge - Courtesy Shutterstock http://www.shutterstock.com/video/clip-4884011-stock-footage-tiger-leaping-gorge-yunnan-province-china.html River coming from mountain - Google Earth 42°21'35.72" S 173°34'30.41" E Meandering River - Google Earth Engine https://earthengine.google.org/ Under Water 2 - Ken Mankoff https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKMaeqpP8s4 Oxbow Lake Australia - GoogleEarth 23°41'31.06" S 150°47'53.91" E Oxbow Lake Colombia - GoogleEarth 3°20'18.70" N  70°07'10.92" O Oxbow Lake France - Google Earth 46°55'24.16" N   5°19'28.34" E Dry Oxbow Lake Colorado - Google Earth 32°00'06.80" N 115°07'19.81" O Martian Rivers on Aeolis Planum - NASA/JPL/University of Arizona http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/PSP_006683_1740 Mars Rover Curiosity - Public Domain Image http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mars_Rover_Curiosity_in_Artist's_Concept,_Wide.jpg
Views: 4382363 MinuteEarth
How to Survive a Lightning Strike
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - http://podcast.minuteearth.com/ We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth REFERENCES Faraday suits/linemen: http://science.howstuffworks.com/faraday-cage3.htm Human body tissues resistivity: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10593226 conductivity of lightning channel: http://iopscience.iop.org/1402-4896/80/3/035901 US soil resistivity: http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/SupportDocuments/UTP_Bulletins_1751F-802.pdf MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Ever Salazar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
Views: 2672359 MinuteEarth
Why Does Earth Have Deserts?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Your contributions help us make more videos! Why Does Earth Have Deserts? For the same reason it has Rainforests: Hadley Cells!!! Thanks to ScienceAlert for support - http://www.sciencealert.com MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Special thanks to Ryan Loomis and TED-Ed for contributions. Paper referred to in the making of this video: Persson, A. 2006. Hadley's principle: Understanding and misunderstanding the trade winds. History of Meteorology 3: 17-42. http://www.meteohistory.org/2006historyofmeteorology3/2persson_hadley.pdf
Views: 1046078 MinuteEarth
The Biggest Organism on Earth
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to ScienceAlert for support - http://www.facebook.com/sciencealert And thanks to the following Subbable supporters; they make MinuteEarth a reality! Mike Ledermueller David Smith @JGregory808 - http://jgregory808.tumblr.com/ Myndert Papenhuyzen @WY_Tang - https://twitter.com/WY_Tang MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - http://podcast.minuteearth.com/ We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth REFERENCES Pando The World's Largest Organism in Trouble. Week of Feb 1 2013. Living on Earth. http://www.loe.org/shows/segments.html?programID=13-P13-00005&segmentID=7 Grant, M. & Mitton, J. 2010. Case Study: The Glorious, Golden, and Gigantic Quaking Aspen. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):40 http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/case-study-the-glorious-golden-and-gigantic-13261308?ref=nf DeWoody, J. et al. 2008. "Pando" Lives: Molecular Genetic Evidence of a Giant Aspen Clone in Central Utah. Western North American Naturalist, 68(4):493-497. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.3398/1527-0904-68.4.493 NYTimes Article, Dec. 21 1992 http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/21/opinion/hail-to-the-world-s-largest-organism.html Mock, KE., et al. 2012. Widespread Triploidy in Western North American Aspen (Populus tremuloides). PLoS ONE 7(10): e48406. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048406 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0048406 Humongous fungus Schmitt, C. and Tatum, M. 2008. The Malheur National Forest: Location of the World's Largest Living Organism [The Humongous Fungus] http://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/fsbdev3_033146.pdf Casselman, A. Oct. 4 2007. Strange but True: The Largest Organism on Earth Is a Fungus. Scientific American. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=strange-but-true-largest-organism-is-fungus Ferguson, BA. et al. 2003. Coarse-scale population structure of pathogenic Armillaria species in a mixed-conifer forest in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:612-623, 10.1139/x03-065. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/x03-065#.UhIzK2R4ZDw Methods for estimating weight of fungi Smith, M., Bruhn, J., and Anderson, J. 1992. The fungus Armillaria bulbosa is among the largest and oldest living organisms. Nature 356: 428-431. http://joelvelasco.net/teaching/systematics/smith%2092%20-%20humongousfungus.pdf Tallest tree http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/records-3000/tallest-tree-living/ Howell, E. April 15, 2013. What is the World's Tallest Tree? Livescience. http://www.livescience.com/28729-tallest-tree-in-world.html Krulwich, R. April 8 2011. The World's Tallest Tree Is Hiding Somewhere In California. krulwich wonders. http://www.npr.org/blogs/krulwich/2011/04/08/135206497/the-worlds-tallest-tree-is-hiding-somewhere-in-california MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Ever Salazar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
Views: 2785108 MinuteEarth
Epigenetics: Why Inheritance Is Weirder Than We Thought
 
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Please help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Tony Fadell - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur __________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: epigenetics: genetic control by factors other than an individual’s DNA sequence epigenetic inheritance: transmittance of information from one generation of an organism to the next that affects the traits of offspring without altering the DNA sequence ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich (@alexhreich), Henry Reich (@minutephysics), Peter Reich and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Dias B.G., Ressler, K.J. (2014) Parental olfactory experience influences behavior and neural structure in subsequent generations. Nature Neuroscience 17:89-96. http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v17/n1/full/nn.3594.html Holliday, R. (2006). Epigenetics: a historical overview. Epigenetics 1: 76–80. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/epi.1.2.2762 Jones P.A., Takai D. (2001) The role of DNA methylation in mammalian epigenetics. Science 293: 1068–1070. https://www.ufpe.br/biolmol/Artigos_Doutorado_2003_Jan/Science-2001-1068-1070.pdf Jones S.V., Choi D.C., Davis M., Ressler K.J. (2008) Learning-dependent structural plasticity in the adult olfactory pathway. Journal of Neuroscience 28: 13106–13111. http://www.jneurosci.org/content/28/49/13106.full.pdf Kaati G., Bygren L.D., Edvinsson S. (2002) Cardiovascular and diabetes mortality determined by nutrition during parents’ and grandparents’ slow growth period. European Journal of Human Genetics 10: 682 – 688. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12404098 Morgan H.D., Sutherland H.G., Martin D.I., Whitelaw E. (1999) Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse. Nature Genetics 23(3): 314-318. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v23/n3/full/ng1199_314.html Pembrey, M. (2002). Time to take epigenetic inheritance seriously. European Journal of Human Genetics 10: 669 – 671. https://moodle.unitec.ac.nz/pluginfile.php/426038/mod_resource/content/0/Epigenetics%20food%20and%20generations.pdf
Views: 1008346 MinuteEarth
Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena
 
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Thanks to spotted hyenas’ unusual social structure, males experience a tough life of solitude, harassment, and deprivation. Support us on Patreon to see more videos like this: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth/posts Thank you to our current supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth Watch our Q&A from 7/21/17: https://www.patreon.com/posts/friday-q-with-13099025 ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Sex role reversed species: a species in which males and females exhibit roles other than what might be expected based on other aspects of their biology and mating systems ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Video Credits: Hyenas feeding - Kate Yoshida Image Credits: Scarface - Kate Yoshida _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: A blog by researchers currently studying spotted hyenas in Kenya's Masai Mara: http://msuhyenas.blogspot.com/ ___________________________________________ References: Chepko-Sade, B. D. & Z. T. Halpin. 1987. Mammalian dispersal patterns: the effects of social stucture on population genetics. University of Chicago Press. Chicago, Illinois. Holekamp, K.E. & Smale, L. (2000) Feisty females and meek males: reproductive strategies in the spotted hyena. In Reproduction in Context. K. Wallen and J. Schneider (Eds). MIT Press. Cambridge. MA. Pp. 257-285. Kruuk H. 1972. The spotted hyena: a study of predation and social behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Smale, L., Nunes, S., and Holekamp, K.E. (1997) Sexually dimorphic dispersal in mammals: patterns, causes and consequences. Advances in the Study of Behavior 26: 181-250. Strauss, E., February 2017, personal communication. Turner, J., June 2017, personal communication. Van Horn, R.C., McElhinny, T.L. & Holekamp, K. E. (2003) Age estimation and dispersal in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta). Journal of Mammalogy 84: 1019-1030. Watts, H. E. & Holekamp, K. E. (2007) Hyena societies. Current Biology 17: R657-R660.
Views: 8023321 MinuteEarth
Are any Animals Truly Monogamous?
 
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Love MinuteEarth? We'd love your support! Subscribe on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Thanks to our Subbable supporter ALFREDO STAGG for making MinuteEarth possible! Created by Henry Reich Animation: Ever Salazar Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Want to add captions to MinuteEarth videos? - minuteearth.subtitl.us Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! References Barash, D. P., & Lipton, J. E. (2002). The myth of monogamy: Fidelity and infidelity in animals and people. Macmillan. Brooked, M. G., Rowley, I., Adams, M., & Baverstock, P. R. (1990). Promiscuity: an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in a socially monogamous species?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26(3), 191-199. Chapais, B. (2013). Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 22(2), 52-65. de Waal, F. B., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). Monogamy with a purpose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(38), 15167-15168. Double, M., & Cockburn, A. (2000). Pre--dawn infidelity: females control extra-pair mating in superb fairy--wrens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1442), 465-470. Kraaijeveld, K., Carew, P. J., Billing, T., Adcock, G. J., & Mulder, R. A. (2004). Extra‐pair paternity does not result in differential sexual selection in the mutually ornamented black swan (Cygnus atratus). Molecular Ecology, 13(6), 1625-1633. Ophir, A. G., Phelps, S. M., Sorin, A. B., & Wolff, J. O. (2008). Social but not genetic monogamy is associated with greater breeding success in prairie voles.Animal Behaviour, 75(3), 1143-1154. Reichard, U. (2002). Monogamy - a Variable Relationship. MaxPlanckResearch Conference Report. Thusius, K. J., Peterson, K. A., Dunn, P. O., & Whittingham, L. A. (2001). Male mask size is correlated with mating success in the common yellowthroat.Animal Behaviour, 62(3), 435-446. Wan, D., Chang, P., & Yin, J. (2013). Causes of extra-pair paternity and its inter-specific variation in socially monogamous birds. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33(3), 158-166. Webster, M. S., Tarvin, K. A., Tuttle, E. M., & Pruett‐Jones, S. (2007). Promiscuity drives sexual selection in a socially monogamous bird. Evolution,61(9), 2205-2211. Monogamous primates: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~phyl/anthro/mating.html Image Credits Fairy Wren Photo by: Wikimedia user benjamint444 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Male_and_female_superb_fairy_wren.jpg Ducks Photo by: Jörg Hempel http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anas_platyrhynchos_LC0193.jpg Swans Photo by: Richard Bartz http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cygnus_olor_flirt_edit.jpg Parrots Photo by: Riza Nugraha http://www.flickr.com/photos/rnugraha/3033898918/ Male Fairy Wren Photo by: Patrick_K59 http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_k59/9697721075/ Female Fairy Wren Photo by: Patrick_K59 http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_k59/9570215778/ Peacock Photo by: Simone Zuffanelli http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pavone_2.jpg?fastcci_from=178401 Siamangs Photo by: Daniel Ramirez http://www.flickr.com/photos/danramarch/5213304237/ Gorillas Based on photo by: Wikimedia user No escape https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG
Views: 2587237 MinuteEarth
Tidal Locking | Why Do We Only See One Side of the Moon?
 
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Thanks to squarespace.com for supporting this video. Go build a website! http://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - salar tel - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @82abhilash - Emil Kampp and our Subbable supporter: - @Green_Minute Please support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Jack Wisdom, Professor of Planetary Sciences, MIT (personal communication) Tidal Locking, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tidal_locking Matija Cuk and Sarah T. Stewart. 2012. Making the Moon from a Fast-Spinning Earth: A Giant Impact Followed by Resonant Despinning. Science 338, 1047. http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~cuk/papers/evection.pdf
Views: 2016996 MinuteEarth
Do Fetuses Poop?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to ScienceAlert for support! - http://www.sciencealert.com MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Drawings by Ever Salazar Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Rose Eveleth. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
Views: 3595764 MinuteEarth
How Tall Can Mountains Be?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Your contributions help us make more videos! What is the maximum height for a mountain on Earth!? And why? Thanks to ScienceAlert for support - http://www.sciencealert.com MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Special thanks to Ryan Loomis and TED-Ed for contributions. Papers referred to in the making of this video: Scheuer, P. A. G. 1981. How High Can A Mountain Be? J. Astrophys. Astr. 2: 165--169. http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/jaa/2/165-169.pdf
Views: 1901542 MinuteEarth
What is Freezer Burn?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to ScienceAlert for support - http://www.sciencealert.com Why do ice cubes shrink, ice cream get frosty, and vegetables dry out in the freezer? FREEZER BURN! MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder References: Frost flowers: http://www.itg.cam.ac.uk/people/grae/90.pdf Freezer burn: http://dft.ba/-freezerburn
Views: 1066712 MinuteEarth
Plate Tectonics Explained
 
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How do plate tectonics REALLY work? Please support us on Patreon at: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks to our Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - salar tel - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @82abhilash ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Anderson, D. L. (2001). Top-down tectonics?. Science, 293(5537), 2016-2018. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/293/5537/2016.short Conrad, C. P., & Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. (2002). How mantle slabs drive plate tectonics. Science, 298(5591), 207-209. ftp://128.171.151.230/engels/Stanley/Textbook_update/Science_298/Conrad-02.pdf Conrad, C.P., 2014. Personal Communication Dietz, R. S. (1961). Continent and ocean basin evolution by spreading of the sea floor. Nature, 190(4779), 854-857. http://eps.mcgill.ca/~courses/c350/lecturestuff/jan28/Dietz_1961.pdf Forsyth, D., & Uyeda, S. (1975). On the relative importance of the driving forces of plate motion. Geophysical Journal International, 43(1), 163-200. http://gji.oxfordjournals.org/content/43/1/163.short Hecht, J. 2014, Aug 29. Earth's tectonic plates have doubled their speed. New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22329843.000-earths-tectonic-plates-have-doubled-their-speed.html#.VBDAJ7ywJ_Q Smil, V. 2007. Energy in Nature and Society: General Energetics of Complex Systems. MIT Press. http://mitpress.mit.edu/books/energy-nature-and-society Driving forces of plate tectonics (website): http://www.columbia.edu/~vjd1/driving_forces_basic.htm
Views: 1208958 MinuteEarth
Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food?
 
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Sponsored by Tab for a Cause: http://www.tabforacause.org?r=3  MinuteEarth is also now on Patreon! Please support us at: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks to: - Subbable supporter Martin Dinov https://www.linkedin.com/in/martindinov - Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - salar tel - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @82abhilash ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Braidwood, R.J., et al. (1953) Symposium: Did Man Once Live by Beer Alone? American Anthropologist (55)4: 515-526 http://bit.ly/13CJ0q7 Curtis, V.,  de Barra, M., & Aunger R. (2011) Disgust as an adaptive system for disease avoidance behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366: 389-401. http://bit.ly/1AKLMUi FAO (2006) Good hygiene practices along the coffee chain. http://bit.ly/1Gv3BdB Fontana C., et al. (2010) Surface microbiota analysis of Taleggio, Gorgonzola, Casera, Scimudin and Formaggio di Fossa Italian cheeses. International Journal of Food Microbiology 138:205–211. http://bit.ly/1w2lTLs Hart, B.L. (1990) Behavioral adaptations to pathogens and parasites: five strategies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14: 273–294. http://bit.ly/1AiKYI9 Katz, Sandor. Interview: August 8, 2014. Kindstedt, P.S. (2013) Making Great Cheeses, part 2. American Society for Microbiology: Microbe Magazine 8(5): 361–367. http://bit.ly/13g60dK Mennella, J.A., et al. (2001) Prenatal and post-natal flavor learning by human infants. Pediatrics 107: e88. http://bit.ly/1Aupl5S ________________________ Image Credits 1. Rotten apple - Rafal Olkis / Shutterstock 2. Apple - Abhijit Tembhekar http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Apple.jpg 3. Cheese - Dieter Seeger http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Emmentaler_aoc_block.jpg 4. Chocolate - Flickr user jules http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/3866423477/ 5. Bacteria - US Naval Research Laboratory http://www.nrl.navy.mil/PressReleases/2012/image1_8-12r_1019x671.jpg 6. Kid eating chocolate - Zurijeta / Shutterstock 7. Woman with coffee - beginwithaspin / Shutterstock 8. Bread is torn in half - Laboko / Shutterstock 9. Rotten Meat - arc15 user The_Camp_Ninja http://www.ar15.com/archive/topic.html?b=1&f=5&t=1234345 10. Salami - André Karwath http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salami_aka.jpg 11. Decomposed Meat - Youtube user agnozja https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OMTywqUPvg 12. Inside cacao - Irene Scott/AusAID http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10708819954/ 13. Cocoa Beans - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10687048615/in/photostream/ 14. Cocoa Beans 2 - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade http://www.flickr.com/photos/dfataustralianaid/10687070725/in/photostream/ 15. Chocolate - Peter Pearson https://www.flickr.com/photos/peterpearson/2359015164 16. Gorgonzola - Formaggio Kitchen http://www.formaggiokitchen.com/shop/product_info.php?products_id=1153 27. Feet - Wikimedia user Kayau http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kayau's_feet.jpg 18. Fish Sauce - Wikimedia user Lord Mountbatten http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fish_sauce-Vientiane.JPG 19. Kiviaq - Inga Sørensen https://picasaweb.google.com/107346908723426363590/RejseTilGrNlandAug20093#5417783833033827874 20. Stinky Tofu - Wikimedia user Richy http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stinky_Tofu_Mala.jpg 21. Sauerkraut - Wikimedia user Qwerty Binary http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sauerkraut_2.jpg 22. Soy Sauce - Flickr user Creative Tools http://www.flickr.com/photos/creative_tools/4341203106/ 23. Prosciutto - Flickr user Sun Taro http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Prosciutto_di_Parma_-_affettato2.jpg 24. Kefir Milk - Wikimedia user Quijote http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kefir_in_a_glass.JPG 25. Kimchi - Flickr user Nagyman http://www.flickr.com/photos/nagy/23219340/ 26. Kombucha Mature - Wikimedia user Mgarten http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kombucha_Mature.jpg 27. Koumiss bottle - Wikimedia user A.Savin http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kumys-bottle.jpg 28. Katsuobushi - Sakurai Midori http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Katsuobushi.jpg 29. Wine - André Karwath http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Wine_Glass.jpg 30. Yogurt - Wikimedia user Oxytousc http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Yogurtland_Yogurt_High_Res.jpg
Views: 2478594 MinuteEarth
Why is All Sand the Same?
 
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Help MinuteEarth weather the sands of time! (By subscribing to MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ) THANK YOU!!!!! And subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd How much it costs to make MinuteEarth - http://dft.ba/-how_much_MinuteEarth_costs Created by Henry Reich Video Concept and Writing: Meg Rosenburg Writing and Editing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Animation: Ever Salazar Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Note: "ortoclase" at 0:59 should be "orthoclase" REFERENCES Assallay, A. M., Rogers, C. D. F., Smalley, I. J., & Jefferson, I. F. 1998. Silt: 2--62 μm, 9--4φ. Earth-Science Reviews 45(1): 61-88. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001282529800035X Bruce Wilkinson, Geology Professor, Syracuse University (personal communication) Krinsley, D. H., & Smalley, I. J. 1972. Sand: The study of quartz sand in sediments provides much information about ancient geological environments. American Scientist 60(3): 286-291. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/27843128?uid=3739736&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21103001116071 IMAGE CREDITS Sand from Gobi Desert http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sand_from_Gobi_Desert.jpg Photo by: Siim Sepp Ruler http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Regla_V.svg Image by: Dnu72 Black Sand Beach: http://www.flickr.com/photos/scottiet812/2876766215/ Photo by: ScottieT812 Red Sand Beach: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kaihalulu_Red_Sand_Beach.JPG Photo by: Tom Walsh White Sand Beach: http://www.flickr.com/photos/diueine/230993921/ Photo by: Diueine Monteiro Dunes: http://www.flickr.com/photos/davidstanleytravel/5282834545/ Photo by: David Stanley Sand Mining http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Miletice,_p%C3%ADskovcov%C3%BD_lom_II.jpg by: Aktron / Wikimedia Commons Beach Photos: Photo by: Myrabella / Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erdeven_Roche_Seche_plage_blockhaus.jpg Photo by: José Porras http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:04._Playa_Pocitos_Pano.jpg Photo by: Viscious81 / Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Havelockradhanagar1.jpg Photo by: Myrabella / Wikimedia Commons http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arromanches_plage.jpg Photo by: Sengkang http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:East_Coast_Park,_Mar_06.JPG Photo by: Sean O'Flaherty http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Half_Moon_Bay_State_Beach_1.jpg Photo by: Ayaita http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Isla_en_Guna_Yala.jpg Photo by: Peter V. Sanchez http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salagdoong_beach.jpg Photo by: Allan Patrick http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Praia-de-Tibau-2.jpg Photo by: cogito ergo imago http://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/2394104152 Photo by: Wicho 2 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CABO_DE_LA_VELA.JPG Photo by: Herbert Vieira http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Praia_do_Morro_da_Pedras,_lado_da_Arma%C3%A7%C3%A3o.JPG Photo by: Urville86 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Virgin_Beach_Laiya.jpg Photo by: Angelo Juan Ramos http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Boracay_perfect_day.jpg Photo by: Magnus Manske http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Timmendorfer_Strand.jpg Photo by: Daniel Schwen http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:USA_Cape_Cod_4_MA.jpg
Views: 3462173 MinuteEarth
Orchids: The Masters Of Lying, Cheating & Stealing
 
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Thanks to Curtin University and the University of Western Australia for sponsoring this video. Also, special thanks to Kingsley Dixon and the Orchid Specialist Group of the IUCN’s Species Survival Commission. ______ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: – Mycelium – Mycorrizhae: a fungus that grows in association with the roots of a plant in a symbiotic or mildly pathogenic relationship. – Mycoheterotroph: A plant that is completely reliant on fungus for all of its nutrition. – Sexual deception: A trick used by numerous orchid species of looking and/or smelling like female insects in order to draw male insects to their flowers (for pollination) – Food deception: Rather than offering pollinators real food rewards (such as nectar or pollen), some orchids merely mimic the looks and smells of other, nearby flowers that offer such rewards. – Pollinia: In most flowering plants, pollen is a powdery substance made up of tons of individual pollen grains. But orchids pack their grains into a couple of sticky sacks (pollinia) instead. – Epiphyte: A plant that grows harmlessly upon another plant. Lots of tropical orchids are epiphytes – Lithophyte: A plant that grows on rocks Species Featured in this video: - Phantom Orchid (Cephalanthera austiniae) - Bee orchid (Ophrys apifera) - Fly orchid (Ophrys insectifera) - Mirror orchid (Ophrys speculum) - Red Helleborine Orchid (Cephalanthera rubra) - Nettle-leaved bellflower (Campanula trachelium) - Hammer orchid (Drakaea glyptodon) - Wasp (Zaspilothynnus trilobatus) - Lady's slipper orchids (Cypripedium calceolus) - Dracula orchids (Dracula terborchii and Dracula andreettae) - Spider orchids (Genus Caladenia) - Cigar Orchid (Cyrtopodium punctatum) - Venus slipper (Paphiopedilum Maudiae) ______ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrators: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Rachel Becker and David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Phantom Orchid - Miguel Vieira Ophrys apifera - Hans Hillewaert Ophrys insectifera - Bernd Haynold Ophrys speculum - Wikimedia user Esculapio Cephalanthera rubra and Campanula trachelium - Olivier Pichard Hammer Orchid Animation based on Photos by Rod Peakall Lady Slipper Orchid - Flickr user ladydragonflyherworld ______ References: Cameron DD, Johnson I, Read DJ, Leake JR. 2008. Giving and receiving: measuring the carbon cost of mycorrhizas in the green orchid, Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 180: 176–184. Cameron DD, Leake JR, Read DJ. 2006. Mutualistic mycorrhiza in orchids: evidence from plant-fungus carbon and nitrogen transfers in the green- leaved terrestrial orchid Goodyera repens. New Phytologist 171: 405–416. Cameron DD, Preiss K, Gebauer G, Read DJ. 2009. The chlorophyll containing orchid Corallorhiza trifida derives little carbon through photosynthesis. New Phytologist 183: 358–364. Givnish, T. J., Spalink, D., Ames, M., Lyon, S. P., Hunter, S. J., Zuluaga, A., . . . Cameron, K. M. (2015). Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers of their extraordinary diversification. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Proc. R. Soc. B, 282(1814), 20151553. doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1553 Hopper, S. D., & Brown, A. P. (2007). A revision of Australia' s hammer orchids (Drakaea: Orchidaceae), with some field data on species-specific sexually deceived wasp pollinators. Aust. Systematic Bot. Australian Systematic Botany, 20(3), 252. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from https://goo.gl/3l7Yuv. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. http://goo.gl/3tzFuC.Accessed online April 27, 2016. Koopowitz, H.. (1992). A STOCHASTIC MODEL FOR THE EXTINCTION OF TROPICAL ORCHIDS. Selbyana,13, 115–122. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41759800 Mccormick, M. K., Taylor, D. L., Juhaszova, K., Burnett, R. K., Whigham, D. F., & O’Neill, J. P. (2012). Limitations on orchid recruitment: Not a simple picture. Molecular Ecology, 21(6), 1511-1523. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294x.2012.05468.x Merckx, V. and Freudenstein, J. V. (2010), Evolution of mycoheterotrophy in plants: a phylogenetic perspective. New Phytologist, 185: 605–609. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://goo.gl/CvCQOX) Rasmussen, Hanne N., and Finn N. Rasmussen. "Orchid mycorrhiza: implications of a mycophagous life style." Oikos 118.3 (2009): 334-345.
Views: 998128 MinuteEarth
The Great North American Locust Plague
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Rose Eveleth. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Thanks to Dr. Jeffrey Alan Lockwood for his expert consultation. REFERENCES Lockwood , J. A. and L. D. DeBrey. 1990. A solution for the sudden and unexplained extinction of the Rocky Mountain locust, Melanoplus spretus (Walsh). Environmental Entomology 19, 1194 - 1205. Lockwood , J. A. 2010. The fate of the Rocky Mountain locust, Melanoplus spretus Walsh: implications for conservation biology. Terrestrial Arthropod Reviews 3,129--160
Views: 1001541 MinuteEarth
The Faint Young Sun Paradox!
 
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This video was supported by the Heising-Simons Foundation. To learn more, visit https://www.heisingsimons.org/ Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Rachel Becker (@RA_Becks) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like this: Fantastic Aurora: Inside the Sun to Earth's Poles https://youtu.be/N5utQxtma2U?t=3m1s FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: Abiogenesis – the process of life arising from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds. Amino Acids – a class of organic compounds. Twenty of the roughly 500 known amino acids appear in the genetic code, and, when strung together into long chains, form the basic building blocks of proteins. Faint Young Sun Paradox – describes the apparent contradiction between evidence for a warm ancient Earth, and stellar models, which predict that the young Sun was 25% dimmer than today's Sun. First described by Carl Sagan and George Mullen in 1972. The Miller–Urey experiment – a landmark experiment in the 1950s in which scientists demonstrated that amino acids could form spontaneously from inorganic gases present in Earth's early atmosphere Snowball Earth – a climatic state of Earth in which the entire surface becomes frozen over. Molecules featured in this video: - Carbon dioxide (CO2) - Methane (CH4) - Nitrous oxide (N20) - Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) - Amino acids (especifically threonine, valine, cysteine and methionine) - Adenine (C5H5N5) - Glycine (C2H5NO2) ___________________________________________ References: Airapetian, V. S., Glocer, A., Gronoff, G., Hébrard, E., & Danchi, W. (2016). Prebiotic chemistry and atmospheric warming of early Earth by an active young Sun. Nature Geoscience Nature Geosci, 9(6), 452-455. doi:10.1038/ngeo2719 Earth's changeable atmosphere. (2016). Nature Geoscience Nature Geosci, 9(6), 409-409. doi:10.1038/ngeo2735 Feulner, G. (2012). The faint young Sun problem. Rev. Geophys. Reviews of Geophysics, 50(2). doi:10.1029/2011rg000375 Leconte, J., Forget, F., Charnay, B., Wordsworth, R., & Pottier, A. (2013). Increased insolation threshold for runaway greenhouse processes on Earth-like planets. Nature, 504(7479), 268-271. doi:10.1038/nature12827 Marchi, S., Black, B., Elkins-Tanton, L., & Bottke, W. (2016). Massive impact-induced release of carbon and sulfur gases in the early Earth's atmosphere. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 449, 96-104. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.05.032 Sagan, C., & Mullen, G. (1972). Earth and Mars: Evolution of Atmospheres and Surface Temperatures. Science, 177(4043), 52-56. doi:10.1126/science.177.4043.52 Wolf, E. T., & Toon, O. B. (2014). Delayed onset of runaway and moist greenhouse climates for Earth. Geophys. Res. Lett. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(1), 167-172. doi:10.1002/2013gl058376
Views: 819827 MinuteEarth
Null Island: The Busiest Place That Doesn't Exist
 
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Thanks to http://www.audible.com/minuteearth for sponsoring this video. Thanks also to Tom Scott for helping write and narrate this video. Check out his amazing channel: https://www.youtube.com/TomScottGo Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Melissa Vigil - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Tom Scott (@tomscott) Script Editor: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Tom Scott (@tomscott) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Photo of Null Island Buoy by: Jacques Grelet, IRD.fr _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: http://www.jsonline.com/news/statepolitics/clerks-scrambling-to-get-voters-in-right-districts-3v3ov36-137102098.html
Views: 1511830 MinuteEarth
Why Don't Sled Dogs Ever Get Tired?
 
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Thanks to Squarespace for sponsoring this video! https://squarespace.com/minuteearth Sled dogs are the best endurance athletes in the world thanks to a weird quirk in their metabolism. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords: Glycolysis: The process by which glycogen is broken down into energy. Anaerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the combustion of carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic metabolism: The creation of energy through the breakdown of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. ATP: The principal molecule for storing and transferring energy in cells. Baseline Vital Signs: A subject’s temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, pain, and pulse oximetry. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: Skunk Bear on the Human Vs. Horse Marathon: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vS2YVN0OAdc ___________________________________________ References: McDougall, C. (2011). Born To Run. McKenzie, M., Holbrook, T., Williamson, T., Royer, C., Valberg, S. ,Hinchcliff, K., Jose-Cunilleras, J., Nelson, S., Willard, M., and Davis, M. (2005). Recovery of Muscle Glycogen Concentrations in Sled Dogs during Prolonged Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 37(8). 1307-1312. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16118576 Poole, D. and Erickson, H. (2011). Highly Athletic Terrestrial Mammals: Horses and Dogs. Comprehensive Physiology. 6:57. 1-37. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23737162 Gerth, N., Redman, P., Speakman, J., Jackson, S., and Stark, J.M. (2010). Energy metabolism of Inuit sled dogs. Journal of Comparative Physiology. 180: 577-589. Retrieved from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20012661 Miller, B., Drake, J., Peelor, F.,, Biela, L., Geor, R., Hinchcliff, K., Davis, M., Hamilton, K. (2015). Participation in a 1000-mile race increases the oxidation of carbohydrate in Alaskan sled dogs. Journal of Applied Physiology. 118(12):1502-1509. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25150223 McKenzie, Ericka. (2017). Professor of large animal internal medicine at the Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Personal Communication.
Views: 1425183 MinuteEarth
Why do Some Species Thrive in Cities?
 
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Urban development can be tough on wildlife. But some plants and animals are adapting to our cities in surprising ways. Thanks to squarespace.com for supporting this video. Go build a website! http://www.squarespace.com/minuteearth (use your 10% discount code: EARTH) Please support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks to our Patreon patrons: - Emil Kampp - @TodayIFoundOut1 - @AntoineCoeur ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! ________________________ References: Cheptou, P., Carrue, O., Rouifed, S., and Cantarel, A. (2008) Rapid evolution of seed dispersal in an urban environment in the weed Crepis sancta. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 3796–9. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/10/3796 DeCandido, R., Muir, A.A., & Gargiullo, M.B. (2004) A first approximation of the historical and extant vascular flora of New York City: implications for native plant species conservation. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131:243–251. http://birdingbob.com/NYC.Flora.Final.Paper.pdf Donihue, C.M., and Lambert, M.R. 2014. Adaptive evolution in urban ecosystems, AMBIO 44(3): 194-203. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13280-014-0547-2 Fattorini, S. (2011) Insect extinction by urbanization: a long term study in Rome. Biological Conservation 144:370–375.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320710003952 Harris, S.E., Munshi-South, J., Obergfell, C., & O’Neill, R. (2013) Signatures of rapid evolution in urban and rural transcriptomes of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) in the New York metropolitan area. PLoS One 8(8):e74938. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074938 Tait, C.J., Daniels, C.B. & Hill, R.S. (2005). Changes in species assemblages within the Adelaide metropolitan area, Australia, 1836–2002. Ecology 15: 346-359. http://www.planta.cn/forum/files_planta/changes_in_species_assemblages_within_the_adelaide_metropolitan_area_australia_1836c2002_796.pdf. Wirgin, I., Roy, N.K., Loftus, M., Chambers, R.C., Franks, D.G. & Hahn, M.E., (2011) Mechanistic Basis of Resistance to PCBs in Atlantic Tomcod from the Hudson River, Science 331(6022): 1322-1325. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6022/1322 White Footed Mouse photo by Melinda Fawver / Courtesy Shutterstock
Views: 935524 MinuteEarth
How Cats Became our Feline Overlords (ft. It's Okay To Be Smart)
 
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Check out how cats became our favorite little murder machines. Buy the CAT CAT T-shirt here: https://store.dftba.com/products/cat-cat-shirt To learn how dogs and humans got together, watch the companion video over at It's OK To Be Smart: https://youtu.be/tggdERc8E6Y - be sure to subscribe while you're there! Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ If you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Puma: The big cat with the largest home range. Felix silvestris: The wildcat that is the direct ancestor to all modern house cats. Bastet: Egyptian cat goddess. Pseudaelurus: A prehistoric cat that is the common ancestor to all modern felines. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Sarah Keartes Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCvisual) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Joe Hanson (@DrJoeHanson) With Contributions From: Ever Salazar, Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Hu, Yaowu, et al. ""Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.1 (2014): 116-120." Montague, Michael J., et al. ""Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication."" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111.48 (2014): 17230-17235. O’Brien, Stephen J., and Warren E. Johnson. The evolution of cats. Scientific American 297.1 (2007): 68-75. "The Lion in the Living Room"" - Abigail Tucker http://amzn.to/2ppLNxz (Public library: http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/956395842) Vigne, Jean-Denis, et al. Earliest “Domestic” Cats in China Identified as Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis). PloS one 11.1 (2016): e0147295. Human-cat burial image provided courtesy of Pr . Jean Guilaine excavations
Views: 1908907 MinuteEarth
How Do Greenhouse Gases Actually Work?
 
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Thanks to Kurz Gesagt for illustrating this video! http://www.youtube.com/kurzgesagt And for composing the music!: https://soundcloud.com/epicmountain/minute-earth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - AshrafDude - Nasser Hamed Alminji - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - @AntoineCoeur And our Subbable Sponsors: - Tori McClanahan - Evan Gale - Ho Yin Michael Cheng - http://lovescomputers.com/ - Raymond Cason - Shalom Craimer - Nick Pietrzak - TPRJones - http://i3.kym-cdn.com/photos/images/newsfeed/000/002/941/Duckroll.jpg - @Lexify - @Asajii - Robin S. - https://code.org/ - Nicholas Buckendorf - Alison G. - choklitfroggie.tumblr.com - Cameron Johnson - Tom Headley - https://www.etsy.com/shop/Piecesofgame - @thenarcolepsist - Bas Hessels - http://bashessels.nl - Nauda Family - Danielle Lane ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: - Radiation balance - incoming radiant energy from the sun minus outgoing energy heading into space. - Infrared radiation - electromagnetic radiation that is invisible to us; comes in longer wavelengths than visible light and provides energy transfer we call heat. ________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/6891774506155638 And here we are on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Virtual Chembook, Elmhurst College, Charles E. Ophardt http://elmhcx9.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/globalwarmA5.html Climate and Earth’s Energy Budget, NASA Earth Observatory http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/EnergyBalance/page6.php Infrared spectroscopy/Caltech (mirrored from UCLA chemistry) http://www.wag.caltech.edu/home/jang/genchem/infrared.htm http://elmhcx9.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/globalwarmA5.html
Views: 998862 MinuteEarth
Why Don't Scavengers Get Sick?
 
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Thanks to Harry’s for supporting this video. Use the coupon code MINUTEEARTH for $5 off your order! https://www.harrys.com/ Subscribe to see all our new videos! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - Mark - @TodayIFoundOut1 - Emil Kampp You can also support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! ________________________ References DeVault, T.L., Rhodes O.E., & Shivik, J.A. (2003) Scavenging by vertebrates: Behavioral, ecological, and evolutionary perspectives on an important energy transfer pathway in terrestrial ecosystems. Oikos 102: 225- 234. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1263&context=icwdm_usdanwrc Flies, A., personal communication, 2015. Houston, D. C. & Cooper, J. (1975) The digestive tract of the whiteback griffon vulture and its role in disease transmission among wild ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Disease 11: 306–313. http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.7589/0090-3558-11.3.306 Marín-Arroyo, A.B., Fosse, P., & Vigne, J.D. (2009) Probable evidences of bone accumulation by Pleistocene bearded vulture at the archaeological site of El Mirón Cave (Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 36: 284–296. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440308002082 Ohishi, I., Sakaguchi, G., Riemann, H., Behymer, D., & Hurvell, B. (1979) Antibodies to Clostridium botulinum toxins in free-living birds and mammals. Journal of Wildlife Disease 15: 3–9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/459044 Roggenbuck, M., Schnell, I.B., Blom, N., Bælum, J., Bertelsen, M.F., Pontén, T.S., Sørensen, S.J., Thomas, M., Gilbert, P., Graves, G.R., & Hansen, L.H. (2014). The microbiome of New World vultures. Nature Communications 5:5498. http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141125/ncomms6498/abs/ncomms6498.html Rozen, D.E., Engelmoer, D.J.P. & Smiseth, P.T. (2008) Antimicrobial strategies in burying beetles breeding on carrion .Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105: 17890-17895. http://www.pnas.org/content/105/46/17890.abstract Selva, N., Jędrzejewska, B., Jędrzejewski, W. & Wajrak, A. (2005): Factors affecting carcass use by a guild of scavengers in European temperate woodland. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 1590-1601. http://zbs.bialowieza.pl/g2/pdf/1509.pdf Von Hoermann, C., Steiger, S., Muller, J.K., & Ayasse, M. (2013) Too fresh is unattractive! The attraction of newly emerged Nicrophorus vespilloides females to odour bouquets of large cadavers at various stages of decomposition. PLoS One 8: e58524. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0058524 Video clips by Kate Yoshida.
Views: 2960224 MinuteEarth
When Trees Go Nuts
 
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Please support us through Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Or, click the "Sponsor" button to support us through YouTube itself. Thank you! Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up? ___________________________________________ To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords: Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production. Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals. ___________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83. Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47. Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70. LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.
Views: 581414 MinuteEarth
Denizens of the Deep
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - http://podcast.minuteearth.com/ We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth REFERENCES Morato, T., R. Watson, T.J. Pitcher and D. Pauly. 2006. Fishing down the deep. Fish and Fisheries 7(1): 23-33. Norse, E. A., et al. 2012. Sustainability of deep-sea fisheries. Marine Policy 36(2): 307-320. Air Bladder http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/577044/swim-bladder MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Ever Salazar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
Views: 1427284 MinuteEarth
How Physics Saved Two Million Premature Babies
 
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This video is in collaboration with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: http://b-gat.es/2lhhtmJ. Doctors beat back a disease that was killing tens of thousands of babies a year with a machine based on a simple principle of physics. Thanks to Bill and Melinda Gates for their financial support. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Preterm Birth: The leading cause of death of children under five years old, prematurity occurs for a variety of different reasons. Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A syndrome in premature babies caused by insufficient production of pulmonary surfactant. Alveoli: Tiny air sacs in the lungs that allow for rapid gas exchange Pulmonary Surfactant: A mixture of lipids and proteins that decreases surface tension in the alveoli. Law of Laplace: A law of physics stating that the pressure within a sphere is inversely proportional to its radius. CPAP: A ventilator that provides Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) to keep the airways open. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: 10 Awesome Balloon Tricks by Mr. Hacker: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NXqmvFy9cXE ___________________________________________ References: Gregg, R. Bernstein, J. (1961). Pulmonary Hyaline Membranes and the Respiratory Distress Syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children 102 (871-889). Retrieved from: http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/500014 Gregory, G., Kitterman, J., Phibbs, R., Tooley, W., and Hamilton, W. (1971). Treatment of the Idiopathic Respiratory-Distress Syndrome with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure. New England Journal of Medicine 284 (1333-1340). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4930602 Kamath, B., MacGuire, E., McClure, E., Goldenberg, R., and Jobe, A. (2011) Neonatal Mortality From Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Lessons for Low-Resource Countries. Pediatrics 127 (1139-1146). Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/6/1139 Mai, C., Yaster, M., Firth, P. (2013). The development of continuous positive airway pressure:an interview with Dr. George Gregory. Pediatric Anaesthesia 23 (3-8). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23170829
Views: 860377 MinuteEarth
Why Can't Mules Have Babies?
 
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Thanks to The Great Courses Plus for sponsoring this video. You can start your subscription with a free one-month trial today by visiting http://ow.ly/Yq7c302duah Hybrid animals are infertile because of the way their sex cells form. But sometimes, life finds a way. FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Hybrid organisms: The offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera. - Mitosis: A process of cell division that produces copies of the original cell. - Meiosis: A process of cell dividion that produces new daughter cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell. - Sex cell, or gamete: a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce. - Hemiclonal transmission: The rare occurence in which only maternal DNA gets passed along during the creation of sex cells. Species featured in this video: - Mule, is the offspring of a male donkey (jack) and a female horse (mare) - Liger, is a hybrid cross between a male lion (Panthera leo) and a female tiger (Panthera tigris) - Zonkey, is the offspring of a zebra and a donkey. Zebra hybrids are generally known as zebroids - Beefalo, also known as cattalo, is the offspring of a domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and an American buffalo (Bison bison) - Cama, is the offspring of a male dromedary camel and a female llama. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Chad Geran Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Omkar Bhagat, Peter Reich, Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Liger Hercules - Ed Quinn https://goo.gl/A8zgxO Zonkey - Flickr user Leogirly4life https://goo.gl/QAcza0 Cama - TaylorLlamas.com http://goo.gl/YCY3Zd Beefalo - Noah's Ark Animal Sanctuary http://www.noahs-ark.org/ _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like these things: The Blitzkreiglr YouTube guys play the game Hybrid Animals: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9WS5cd_59I ___________________________________________ References: Ryder, O., Chemnick, L., Bowling, A., Benirschke, K. (1985). Male mule foal qualifies as the offspring of a female mule and Jack donkey. Journal of Heredity 76 (379-381). Retrieved from http://jhered.oxfordjournals.org/content/76/5/379 C.J. Zhao, Y.H. Qin, X.H. Lee, Ch. Wu (2006). Molecular and cytogenetic paternity testing of a male offspring of a hinny. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics,123: 403-405. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177697 Bucholz (2013). Colorado miracle mule foal lived short life, but was well-loved.The Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/2013/08/16/colorado-miracle-mule-foal-lived-short-life-but-was-well-loved/ Millon, L. (2016). Personal Communication. Antczak, D. (2016). Personal Communication.
Views: 3520419 MinuteEarth
The One That Got Away (Size Matters)
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Ever Salazar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder REFERENCES Berkeley et al. 2004. http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/03-0706 Birkeland and Dayton. 2005. http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution//retrieve/pii/S0169534705000777?cc=y Garcia et al. 2012. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00070/18121/15670.pdf Halliday and Pinhorn. 2009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783609000423 Halliday and Pinhorn. 2002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0165783602000796 Jorgensen et al. 2007. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2007/publication-3302.pdf Beldade et al. 2012. http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/people/bernardi/Bernardi/Publications/2012Female_size.pdf Schmidt. 2003. http://www.oecd.org/japan/2507622.pdf Shackell and Frank. 2007. http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps2007/336/m336p235.pdf Zhou et al. 2010. http://www.pnas.org/content/107/21/9485.full.pdf+html Fishing regulations: http://myfwc.com/media/2617048/Commercial%20Regulations%20Quick%20Chart.pdf http://www.southernsfc.org.uk/mls/wheelhousecard.pdf http://www.mass.gov/eea/docs/dfg/dmf/recreationalfishing/private-angler-rules-poster.pdf http://www.dec.ny.gov/docs/fish_marine_pdf/fishlimits.pdf
Views: 1902131 MinuteEarth
How Your Dog Can Protect You Before You're Born
 
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Please support MinuteEarth on Patreon!: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Thanks to all our Patreon supporters, who help make MinuteEarth possible, especially: Michael Hawkins (from Subbable) Murray Down (from Subbable) Herein we explain how pets can help your immune system, beginning when you're in utero! Created by Henry Reich Animation: Ever Salazar Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! References Arbes Jr, S. J., Gergen, P. J., Elliott, L., & Zeldin, D. C. (2005). Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 116(2), 377-383. Bisgaard, H., Li, N., Bonnelykke, K., Chawes, B. L. K., Skov, T., Paludan-Müller, G., ... & Krogfelt, K. A. (2011). Reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota during infancy is associated with increased risk of allergic disease at school age. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128(3), 646-652. Fujimura, K. E., Johnson, C. C., Ownby, D. R., Cox, M. J., Brodie, E. L., Havstad, S. L., ... & Lynch, S. V. (2010). Man's best friend? The effect of pet ownership on house dust microbial communities. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 126(2), 410. Gergen, P. J., Arbes Jr, S. J., Calatroni, A., Mitchell, H. E., & Zeldin, D. C. (2009). Total IgE levels and asthma prevalence in the US population: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124(3), 447-453. Havstad, S., Wegienka, G., Zoratti, E. M., Lynch, S. V., Boushey, H. A., Nicholas, C., ... & Johnson, C. C. (2011). Effect of prenatal indoor pet exposure on the trajectory of total IgE levels in early childhood. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 128(4), 880-885. Jakobsson, H. E., Abrahamsson, T. R., Jenmalm, M. C., Harris, K., Quince, C., Jernberg, C., ... & Andersson, A. F. (2013). Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by Caesarean section. Gut. Joseph, C. L., Ownby, D. R., Havstad, S. L., Woodcroft, K. J., Wegienka, G., MacKechnie, H., ... & Johnson, C. C. (2011). Early complementary feeding and risk of food sensitization in a birth cohort. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 127(5), 1203-1210. McNeill, G., Tagiyeva, N., Aucott, L., Russell, G., & Helms, P. J. (2009). Changes in the prevalence of asthma, eczema and hay fever in pre‐pubertal children: a 40‐year perspective. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 23(6), 506-512. Smallwood, J., & Ownby, D. (2012). Exposure to dog allergens and subsequent allergic sensitization: an updated review. Current allergy and asthma reports,12(5), 424-428. Images Daniel Stockman: http://www.flickr.com/photos/evocateur/6365009983/ Carmen Rodriguez: http://www.flickr.com/photos/carmenherbs/11166111013/ 23am.com: http://www.flickr.com/photos/23am/3817278904/ Hernan Mojarro: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hmojarro/2517666578/ Din Muhammad Sumon: http://www.flickr.com/photos/dmsumon/6565661817/ Katherine/tintedglass: http://www.flickr.com/photos/tintedglass/3943681096/ Jerry Frausto: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gorefiendus/3432756019/
Views: 3667422 MinuteEarth
Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales
 
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How whale poop becomes perfume. Thanks to Crunchyroll for sponsoring this video! http://www.crunchyroll.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some keywords to get your googling started: Sperm Whale: (Physeter macrocephalus) The largest toothed-whale, found in oceans all around the world, and likely the only whale besides the Pygmy Sperm Whale to produce ambergris. Cephalopod: An active predatory mollusk like an octopus or a squid. Cetacean: A marine mammal like a porpoise, dolphin or whale. Colon: The part of the large intestine that goes from the cecum to the rectum. Rectum: The last part of the intestine that ends in the anus. Eau de toilette: A dilute form of perfume ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ If you liked this week’s video, we think you might also like: When a whale falls, it's story has just begun: https://vimeo.com/29987934 ___________________________________________ References: Clarke, R. (2006). The Origin of Ambergris. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 5:1 (7-21). Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5597/lajam00087 Dannenfeldt, K. (1982). Ambergris: The Search for Its Origin. Isis 73:3 (382-397). Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/231442 Kemp, K. (2016). Personal communication based on his book, “Floating Gold: A Natural (and Unnatural) History of Ambergris.” Link: https://www.amazon.com/Floating-Gold-Natural-Unnatural-Ambergris/dp/0226430367
Views: 1186901 MinuteEarth
Our Atmosphere is Escaping!
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder References: Atmospheric escape on Earth: http://faculty.washington.edu/dcatling/Catling2009_SciAm.pdf
Views: 1051527 MinuteEarth
Why Do Some Animals Get Gigantic?
 
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Get your first KiwiCo box free by going to http://www.kiwico.com/minuteearth Occasionally, internal or external factors change, allowing certain animals to become giant versions of themselves. Thanks also to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth ___________________________________________ To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: Spiracles: External respiratory openings on insects Carboniferous Period: The time period from 359-299 million years ago when the Earth’s oxygen levels increased rapidly. Square-Cube Law: A mathematical principle that describes the relationship between area and volume. Buoyancy: An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. Phytoplankton: Microscopic plants eaten by krill and other zooplankton. Baleen: A filter-feeding system inside the mouth of some whales. _________________________________________ Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/ Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________ References: Kaiser, A., et al. (2007). Increase in tracheal investment with beetle size supports hypothesis of oxygen limitation on insect gigantism. 13198-13203. PNAS. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1941816/ Sander, P. Christian, et al. (2011). Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs:the evolution of gigantism. Biological Reviews. 86(1): 117–155. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045712/ Taylor, M and Weder, M. (2013). Why sauropods had long necks; and why giraffes have short necks. PeerJ 1:e36. Retrieved from: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1209.5439.pdf. Verberk, W. and Bilton, D. (2011). Can Oxygen Set Thermal Limits in an Insect and Drive Gigantism? PLOS One. 6(7): e22610. Retrieved from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022610 Slater, G., Goldbogen, J., Pyenson, N. (2017). Independent evolution of baleen whale gigantism linked to Plio-Pleistocene ocean dynamics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 284: 20170546. Retrieved from: http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/284/1855/20170546.
Views: 626391 MinuteEarth
Left vs Right
 
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Why do we drive on the left/right!? Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to ScienceAlert (http://www.sciencealert.com), MinuteEarth is now available for FREE as a Podcast: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder References: http://brianlucas.ca/roadside/
Views: 1966048 MinuteEarth
The Secret Social Life of Plants
 
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Thanks to Audible for supporting MinuteEarth - get a FREE audiobook at http://www.audible.com/minute Please support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Video Concept and Writing: Ferris Jabr Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Barto, E. K., Weidenhamer, J. D., Cipollini, D., & Rillig, M. C. (2012). Fungal superhighways: do common mycorrhizal networks enhance below ground communication?. Trends in plant science, 17(11), 633-637. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360138512001331 Gianoli, E., & Carrasco-Urra, F. (2014). Leaf Mimicry in a Climbing Plant Protects against Herbivory. Current Biology, 24(9), 984-987. http://goo.gl/eW6cB4 Holopainen, J. K., & Blande, J. D. (2012). Molecular plant volatile communication. In Sensing in nature (pp. 17-31). Springer US. http://goo.gl/K9k4VE Kask, K., Kännaste, A., & Niinemets, Ü. (2013). Emission of volatile organic compounds as a signal of plant stress. Scientific Bulletin of ESCORENA, 8, 79-92. http://goo.gl/IR7hcm Song, Y. Y., Zeng, R. S., Xu, J. F., Li, J., Shen, X., & Yihdego, W. G. (2010). Interplant communication of tomato plants through underground common mycorrhizal networks. PLoS One, 5(10), e13324. http://goo.gl/mMxEDN Piesik, D., Pańka, D., Delaney, K. J., Skoczek, A., Lamparski, R., & Weaver, D. K. (2011). Cereal crop volatile organic compound induction after mechanical injury, beetle herbivory (Oulema spp.), or fungal infection (Fusarium spp.). Journal of plant physiology, 168(9), 878-886. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0176161710005584 Plants Send SOS When Caterpillars Bite. Jan Suszkiw - USDA. http://goo.gl/SGrgpU Plant's "Call for Help" Brings Enemies, Too. NatGeo NewsWatch. http://goo.gl/RILrGk Parasitic wasps keep cabbage-munching moths at bay . BirdGuide. http://goo.gl/0sBQzV Video of dodder vine moving towards host. PBS. http://goo.gl/ZugkBo
Views: 1121464 MinuteEarth
Why Do Rivers Have Deltas?
 
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Where rivers meet the ocean, coastlines tend to bend either inward or outward, creating estuaries and deltas. But how do they get those shapes? A huge thank-you to the following organizations, all working toward sustainable deltas, for sponsoring this video: the Belmont Forum, the Sustainable Deltas Initiative, the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics, the St Anthony Falls Laboratory of the University of Minnesota, and the DELTAS project. These organizations study deltas around the world, in particular how they’re threatened by human activities such as building dams, channelizing rivers, and climate change-induced sea-level rise. If we don’t pay attention, we might lose the landform that allowed us to become civilized in the first place. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Maarten Bremer - Tony Fadell - Antoine Coeur - Nicholas Buckendorf - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Muhammad Shifaz ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: – delta: the piled-up sediment (typically triangular, or greek-letter-delta-shaped) deposited by a river as it flows into a larger body of water – estuary: a partially enclosed body of brackish (part salt, part fresh) water that connects one or more ocean-bound streams/rivers to the open sea. Geologists classify estuaries into four basic types (bar-built, coastal plain/drowned river, tectonic, and fjord), based on the geologic processes that formed them. – ice age: this is a term that geologists use a little differently than non-scientists. Geologically speaking, an ice age is a fairly long period (~100-300 million years) of relatively cold temperatures on Earth. Within these long periods of time, the climate warms and cools lots of times, causing the ice sheets to retreat and advance; geologists refer to the colder time intervals as "glacials" and the warmer periods as "interglacials". We are currently in an "interglacial" phase (that started ~15,000 years ago) of an ice age that started ~2.6 million years ago, but because that's kind of complicated, we just say "the end of the last ice age" when what we really mean is "the end of the last 'glacial' cycle of the current ice age." – marine transgression / marine regression: on the surface, these are just fancy ways of talking about sea level going up and down. But for geologists, "transgression" and "regression" are more useful, because land sometimes goes up and down too. For example, if movement along a tectonic fault causes part of the coast to drop below sea level, it might get flooded, but it wouldn't be accurate to attribute the flooding to sea level rise. So geologists describe the situation as "marine transgression" instead. These terms comes in handy when we're talking about deltas and estuaries: deltas are formed by marine regression, and estuaries by marine transgression. ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert) Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Alex Reich (@alexhreich), Henry Reich (@minutephysics) and Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Bhattacharya, J.P. (2003) Deltas and Estuaries, In: Middleton G.V. (editor) Encyclopedia of Sedimentology, Kluwer Academic 145-152. http://www.geosc.uh.edu/docs/geos/faculty-files/pdf/2003.pdf Day, J., Gunn, J., Folan, W., Yáñez-Arancibia, A., & Horton, B. (2007). Emergence of complex societies after sea level stabilized. Eos Trans. AGU Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 88(15), 169-170. Giosan, L., Goodbred, S.L. (2006) Deltaic Environments. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. https://www.whoi.edu/science/GG/coastal/publications/pdfs/Giosan&Goodbred_DeltEnv_REVISED.pdf Gupta, A. (2007). Large rivers: Geomorphology and management. Chichester, England: John Wiley. Russell, R.J. (1967) Aspects of Coastal Morphology. Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography 49: 299-309. (Abstract) http://www.jstor.org/stable/520896?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Wright, L.D. (1977) Sediment transport and deposition at river mouths: A synthesis. Geological Society of America Bulletin 88:857-868.
Views: 1222206 MinuteEarth
How to Keep Elephants and Wolves Out of Your Yard
 
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Please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Sorry for the re-upload!! YouTube technical difficulties... ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - http://podcast.minuteearth.com/ Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References: Ausband, D.E. 2010. Pilot study report for using a biofence to manipulate wolf pack movements in central Idaho. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. http://www.umt.edu/mcwru/personnel/ausband/docs/biofence_pilot_test_report_2010.pdf Ausband, D.E.  (2011) Biofence: A Novel, Non-Lethal Tool for Deterring Wolf/Livestock Conflicts. Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit. https://awionline.org/sites/default/files/uploads/documents/wild-csaward-biofence-070411.pdf Beachy R.N. (1997) Mechanisms and applications of pathogen-derived resistance in transgenic plants. Current Opinions in Biotechnology 8(2): 215–220. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9079736 Beachy R.N., Loesch-Fries S., and Tumer N. (1990) Coat protein-mediated resistance against virus infection Annual Review of Phytopathology 28: 451-472. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.py.28.090190.002315?journalCode=phyto Ferreira, S.A., Pitz, K.Y., Manshardt, R., Zee, F., Fitch, M., and Gonsalves, D. (2002) Virus coat protein transgenic papaya provides practical control of papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Disease 86: 101–105. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.2.101 Gonsalves, D. and Ferreira, S. (2003) Transgenic papaya: a case for managing risks of papaya ringspot virus in Hawaii. Plant Health Progress. http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=2913&content=PDF King, L.E., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Vollrath, F. (2011) Beehive fences as effective deterrents for crop-raiding elephants: field trials in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 49(4): 431-39. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2028.2011.01275.x/abstract King, L.E., Lawrence, A., Douglas-Hamilton, I. and Vollrath, F. (2009) Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants. African Journal of Ecology 47(2): 131–137. http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/publications/downloads/king2009-beehive.pdf ________________________ Video Credits: Deer jumping over fence Footage by: Youtube user musselshell youtube.com/watch?v=eV23yzJIPWo Photo credits: Cow Peeing Photo by: Richard Bartz http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bos_taurus_taurus_peeing.jpg Bos Taurus sideview Photo by: Richard Bartz http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bos_taurus_taurus_sideview.JPG Bos Taurus sideview 2 Photo by: Wikimedia user Irmgard http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simmentaler_Fleckvieh.jpg Sagalla beehive fence Photo by: Lucy King http://www.elephantsandbees.com Timber_wolves_fighting Photo by: Martin Cathrae http://www.flickr.com/photos/suckamc/6980791925/ Timber_wolves Photo by: Martin Cathrae http://www.flickr.com/photos/suckamc/6980791925/ Papaya Guanica Photo by: David Jenkins / EntomologyLabPR http://entomologylabpr.blogspot.com/2013/02/what-does-aphid-see-implications-for.html Elephant Photo by: Wkimedia user Charlesjsharp http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:African_Elephant_walking.JPG Bee Photo by: Bob Peterson http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Honey_Bee_on_Willow_Catkin_(5419305106).jpg
Views: 525461 MinuteEarth
What is Skin For?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ REFERENCES Skin cell loss by weight Agache, P. & Humbert, P. 2004. "Measuring the Skin." http://dft.ba/-74An Aly, R. et al. 1978. Effect of Prolonged Occlusion on the Microbial Flora, pH, Carbon Dioxide and Transepidermal Water Loss on Human Skin. http://dft.ba/-73BV Candi, E. et al. 2005. The cornified envelope: a model of cell death in the skin http://dft.ba/-naturepaper Takahashi, M. et al. 1987. Measurement of turnover time of stratum corneum using dansyl chloride fluorescence http://dft.ba/-73Rz Onken, H.D. & Moyer, C.A. 1963. The Water Barrier in Human Epidermis: Physical and Chemical Nature. http://dft.ba/-752n Stratum Corneum Thickness Rougier, A. et al. 1978. Relationship between skin permeability and corneocyte size according to anatomic site, age, and sex in man. http://dft.ba/-74kt Keratinization: An Overview http://dft.ba/-752l MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich Writing and Editing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Animation: Emily Elert Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
Views: 868049 MinuteEarth
Do We Have to Get Old and Die?
 
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We’d like to thank Focus Features for sponsoring this video – and for inviting us to pre-screen their summer 2015 film “Self/Less”. It’s a sci-fi flick that explores memory, consciousness, and immortality, and it made us think about the types of immortality that already exist here on Earth. A big thanks to Focus Features for supporting MinuteEarth! http://www.focusfeatures.com/selfless Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Maarten Bremer - Mark - BurmansHealthShop - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur YOU can also support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: – negligible senescence: not showing signs of age-related progression – biological immortality: having a mortality rate that does not increase with increasing age ________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/6891774506155638 And here we are on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ References: Aubert, G. & Lansdorp, P. M. (2008) Telomeres and aging. Physiological Review 88(2): 557–579. http://simonadellemonache.com/dispensa%206b%20-telomerasi%20e%20cancro.pdf Bavestrello, G. Sommer, C., and Sará, M. 1992. Bi-directional conversion in Turritopsis nutricula. In Aspects of Hydrozoan Biology. (J. Bouillon et al., editors). Scientia Marina 56 (2-3): 137-140. http://www.icm.csic.es/scimar/pdf/56/sm56n2137.pdf Buffenstein R. (2008) Negligible senescence in the longest living rodent, the naked mole rat: Insights from a successfully aging species. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 178: 439-445. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00360-007-0237-5 Finch, C.E. (1998) Variations in senescence and longevity include the possibility of negligible senescence. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences 53A(4): B235–239. http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/53A/4/B235.full.pdf Piraino, S., Boero, F., Aeschbach, B., Schmid, V. (1996) Reversing the life cycle: medusae transforming into polyps and cell transdifferentiation in Turritopsis nutricula (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Biological Bulletin 190: 302-312. http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ferdinando_Boero/publication/230806599_Reversing_the_Life_Cycle_Medusae_Transforming_into_Polyps_and_Cell_Transdifferentiation_in_Turritopsis_nutricula_(Cnidaria_Hydrozoa)/links/09e415049c1ffe92d6000000.pdf Tian, X., Azpurua, J., Hine, C., Vaidya, A., Myakishev-Rempel, M., Ablaeva, J., Mao, Z., Nevo, E., Gorbunova, V., & Seluanov, A. (2013) High-molecular-mass hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole rat. Nature 499: 346–349. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v499/n7458/full/nature12234.html Image Credits: Nake Mole Rat - Buffenstein/Barshop Institute/UTHSCSA https://www.flickr.com/photos/jedimentat/7557258168/ Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz, Wien https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg Chipmunk - Gilles Gonthier https://www.flickr.com/photos/gillesgonthier/8101118739 Capybara - Karoly Lorentey https://www.flickr.com/photos/lorentey/5592629831
Views: 2182202 MinuteEarth
Rain's Dirty Little Secret
 
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Check out http://www.lynda.com/minuteearth for 10 days of free online courses. Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - AshrafDude - Nasser Hamed Alminji - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Emil Kampp - Today I Found Out - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Subscribe to see all our new videos! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/6891774506155638 And YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: - Condensation – the process of water molecules glomming together into visible droplets - Condensation nuclei – tiny solid particles that water vapor condenses onto (also called aerosols) - Homogenous condensation – condensation without any kind of condensation nuclei - Dew point – the temperature below which water vapor starts to condense into droplets - Heterogenous condensation – condensation that happens with the help of condensation nuclei - Critical Embryo – a cluster of water molecules big enough to easily gain more molecules - Cloud chamber – a cool thing to check out if you want to build a particle detector at home (it involves pumping a bunch of water vapor into pure air; when a particle passes through, it leaves a streak of ionized water molecules that, in super-saturated air, can act as condensation nuclei!) __________________ References: Knupp, K. Surface Thermodynamics and Nucleation of Water Droplets and Ice Crystals. Lecture Notes. Retrieved March 2015 from: http://vortex.nsstc.uah.edu/mips/personnel/kevin/thermo/Chap-9-surfacethermo.pdf McDonald, JE (1962) Homogenous Nucleation of Vapor Condensation. I. Thermodynamic Aspects. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. McDonald, JE (1962) Homogenous Nucleation of Vapor Condensation. II. Kinetic Aspects. Institute of Atmospheric Physics, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Image Credits: Dewdrops - David Saddler https://www.flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/5782047749/in/photostream/
Views: 2135881 MinuteEarth
Ocean Confetti!
 
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Thanks to CSIRO for supporting MinuteEarth. - https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/Facilities/Marine-National-Facility/RV-Investigator Support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And Subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 ________________________ Created by Henry Reich Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, and Kate Yoshida Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ________________________ References Andrady, A. L. (2011). Microplastics in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8), 1596-1605. http://plasticsoupfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Microplastics-in-the-marine-environment.pdf Barnes, D. K., Galgani, F., Thompson, R. C., & Barlaz, M. (2009). Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,364(1526), 1985-1998. http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1526/1985.full Browne, M. A., Crump, P., Niven, S. J., Teuten, E., Tonkin, A., Galloway, T., & Thompson, R. (2011). Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines woldwide: sources and sinks. Environmental science & technology, 45(21), 9175-9179. http://plasticsoupfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Browne_2011-EST-Accumulation_of_microplastics-worldwide-sources-sinks.pdf Cole, M., Lindeque, P., Halsband, C., & Galloway, T. S. (2011). Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review. Marine Pollution Bulletin,62(12), 2588-2597. ftp://lakeerie.ohiodnr.com/Wildlife/Fairport_Fish/gorman/Plastics/Cole_ea_2011_Review.pdf Goldstein, M. C., Titmus, A. J., & Ford, M. (2013). Scales of Spatial Heterogeneity of Plastic Marine Debris in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PloS one, 8(11), e80020. http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080020.g009 Morét-Ferguson, S., Law, K. L., Proskurowski, G., Murphy, E. K., Peacock, E. E., & Reddy, C. M. (2010). The size, mass, and composition of plastic debris in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(10), 1873-1878. http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/15473821/1125263012/name/The%20size,%20mass,%20and%20composition%20of%20plastic%20debris%20in%20the%20western%20North%20Atlantic%20Ocean.pdf Ryan, P. G., Moore, C. J., van Franeker, J. A., & Moloney, C. L. (2009). Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,364(1526), 1999-2012. http://www.vliz.be/imisdocs/publications/212759.pdf Zettler, E. R., Mincer, T. J., & Amaral-Zettler, L. A. (2013). Life in the "Plastisphere": microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environmental science & technology, 47(13), 7137-7146. http://diyhpl.us/~bryan/papers2/paperbot/2ab115be13e52bbb9fbd78ecddd0bd19.pdf Image credits Hydration Bottles Photo by: Flickr user Rubbermaid Products https://www.flickr.com/photos/rubbermaid/6959996569/ Sandbox and Beach Toys Photo by: Black Market http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Childrens_Museum_of_Indianapolis_-_Sandbox_and_Beach_Toys.jpg Plastics Photo by: Montgomery Cty Division of Solid Waste Services https://www.flickr.com/photos/mcrecycles/7460449608 Plastics Cups Photo by: Montgomery Cty Division of Solid Waste Services https://www.flickr.com/photos/mcrecycles/7460480966/ Plastic Bottle Photo by: Flickr User PUMP AID https://www.flickr.com/photos/worldwaterday/8534578744/ Chinese Plastic Toys Photo by: Wikimedia user Fotokannan http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chineese_plastic_toys1.JPG Playground slide Flickr user ttarasiuk https://www.flickr.com/photos/tara_siuk/3824234031 Recycled Water Bottles Steven Depolo https://www.flickr.com/photos/stevendepolo/5941197615 Sea with Garbage Dump Photo by: Adam Jones http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sea_with_Garbage_Dump_-_Along_the_Malecon_-_Santo_Domingo_-_Dominican_Republic.jpg Albatross Plastic Chris Jordan / USFWS Headquarters http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Albatross_at_Midway_Atoll_Refuge_(8080507529).jpg
Views: 933438 MinuteEarth
We're Oversalting Our Food, And It's Not What You Think
 
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This video was supported in part by Leesa, an online mattress company. Use the offer code "EARTH75" for $75 off your purchase at https://www.leesa.com/earth Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - BurmansHealthShop - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Today I Found Out - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur Already subscribed? You can also support us on Patreon! https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started: soil salinity - when soils have high salt levels that have adverse effects on plants ___________________________________________ Credits: Created by: Henry Reich (@minutephysics) With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Emily Elert (@eelert) Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) Omkar Bhagat (@TheCuriousEnggr) Peter Reich Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Kate Yoshida Video Illustrator: Omkar Bhagat Video Director: Emily Elert Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Hillel, Daniel. (2000). Salinity management for sustainable irrigation: integrating science, environment, and economics. Environmentally and socially sustainable development series. Rural development*ESSD Environmentally & Socially Sustainable Development Work in Progress. Washington, D.C. The World Bank. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2000/08/693345/salinity-management-sustainable-irrigation-integrating-science-environment-economics Pitman, M. G., & Läuchli, A. (2002). Global impact of salinity and agricultural ecosystems. In Salinity: environment-plants-molecules (pp. 3-20). Springer Netherlands. Qadir, M., Quillérou, E., Nangia, V., Murtaza, G., Singh, M., Thomas, R.J., Drechsel, P. and Noble, A.D. (2014). Economics of salt-induced land degradation and restoration. Natural Resources Forum, 38: 282–295. doi: 10.1111/1477-8947.12054 Schofield, N. J. (1992). Tree planting for dryland salinity control in Australia. Agroforestry Systems, 20(1-2), 1-23. Image Credits: flickr user brewbooks Henry Hemming Paige Rajnus USDA NRCS South Dakota
Views: 1857603 MinuteEarth
Beer & Biodiversity
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to ScienceAlert for support! - http://www.sciencealert.com MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Drawings by Ever Salazar Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, and Rose Eveleth. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder References: L'ecologie en ville - http://amzn.to/14qhoQS
Views: 1130180 MinuteEarth
How To Avoid The Next Atlantis
 
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A big thank you to AXA for sponsoring this video. Visit http://www.axa.com/resilience to learn more about their survey on how cities and businesses worldwide are adapting to climate-related challenges. Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) and Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director and Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) With Contributions From: Henry Reich (@minutephysics) and Peter Reich Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subbed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: Delta Works. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delta_Works. Flood control in the Netherlands. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 8, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flood_control_in_the_Netherlands. IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp. http://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/syr/ Koch, E.W., Barbier, E.B., Silliman, B.R., Reed, D.J. et al. (2009). Non-linearity in ecosystem services: temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7(1):29–37. http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1056&context=iss_pub Möller, I.; Kudella, M.; Rupprecht, F.; Spencer, T.; Paul, M.; van Wesenbeeck, B.K (2014). Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions. Nature Geoscience 7: 727–731. http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v7/n10/full/ngeo2251.html Moss, S. (2011, January 19). Weatherwatch: The Grote Mandrenke. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/news/2011/jan/20/weatherwatch-grote-mandrenke The Nature Conservancy (2015). Urban Coastal Resilience: Valuing Nature’s Role. https://tnc.app.box.com/s/9awez618538tf24rnu5mv73fkfa668mr/1/4092107687/34026668411/1 The World Bank Group (2011). Guide to Climate Change Adaptation in Cities. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTURBANDEVELOPMENT/Resources/336387-1318995974398/GuideClimChangeAdaptCities.pdf Image Credits: Oahu Hawaii - Cristo Vlahos https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Waikiki_view_from_Diamond_Head.JPG Port of Cape Town - Wikimedia user SkyPixels https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Port_of_Cape_Town.jpg Hong Kong - Wikimedia user WiNG https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hong_Kong_Island_Skyline_2009.jpg Perth Australia - Public Domain https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Perth_Skyline.jpg Maeslantkering closed - World66.com http://www.world66.com/europe/netherlands/lib/gallery/showimage?pic=europe/netherlands/new_waterway_storm Hartelkering gesloten - Wikimedia user Quistnix https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spijkenisse_-_Hartelkering_gesloten.jpg Oosterscheldekering-pohled - Vladimír Šiman https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oosterscheldekering-pohled.jpg Haringvlietdam 2006 - Wikimedia user Quistnix https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Haringvlietdam_2006_06_18-2.jpg Jakarta's flooded streets - VOA Indonesian Service (Public Domain) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VOA_People_walk_through_Jakarta%27s_flooded_streets.jpg Hurricane Patricia - NOAA https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Hurricane_Patricia_October_23,_2015,_GOES-15_visible_animation.gif Permeable "Thirsty" concrete - Tarmac Ltd https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vlFX_WTFIis Floating Utility Unit - DeltaSync/Blue21 http://www.blue21.nl/ Rijnhavenpark - DeltaSync/Blue21 http://www.blue21.nl/ Tracks and Storms - Robert Allison http://robslink.com/ NYC Hurricane Evacuation Map - City of New York http://maps.nyc.gov/hurricane/
Views: 1157404 MinuteEarth
Why Are There Clouds?
 
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Thanks to the awesome science YouTube channel Animalogic for supporting this video. Check them out! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwg6_F2hDHYrqbNSGjmar4w?sub_confirmation=1 Thanks also to our Patreon patrons: - @AntoineCoeur - Jeff Straathof - Mark - facebook.com/maarten.bremer - Emil Kampp - @TodayIFoundOut1 And our Subbable Sponsors: - Joseph Perry - @visticuffs 3 - Austin Spafford - @WY_Tang - Moti Lieberman - www.youtube.com/user/thelingspace/ - Candice Blodgett - Ryan Brown - John Harman (from Dayton, OH)! - http://www.givewell.org/ - @rbairwell - Matt Chaput - Nicklas Ulvnäs - Merry Beeman - James Fleming - http://robot.wpi.edu/ - @BryLikeDaCheese - Brandon Heanssler - http://bhcreates.com/ - Damien Bargiacchi - http://bccancerfoundation.com/ You can also support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ ___________________________________________ MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth’s environment – in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich With the MinuteEarth team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ________________________ Please support us on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/minuteearth And follow us on Vessel: https://www.vessel.com/shows/6891774506155638 And YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1 And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter: http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth ________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some key words/phrases to get your googling started: – Lifting Condensation Level (LCL): The altitude at which the water vapor in rising air begins to condense – Adiabatic Cooling: describes the process by which an air blob cools as it rises (and as air pressure drops) – Latent heat: the energy absorbed by water molecules during evaporation and released during condensation – Energy of Vaporization: The amount of energy it takes for a liquid to evaporate – Ideal Gas Law: The rule about how a volume of gas at a constant temperature and pressure always has the same number of molecules – Supercell: A really big thunderstorm. Like, the biggest. ________________________ References: Abraham. F.F. (1974) Homogeneous Nucleation Theory: The Pretransition Theory of Vapor Condensation. Academic Press http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Kr0YJs7WPl8C&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=water+vapor+condensation&ots=rczn1FI2Va&sig=uzYFuWSXR6cq6Yqo1-f4PcNcO4A#v=onepage&q=galaxy&f=false Cameron Balloons (Accessed February 2015) Web Resource http://www.cameronballoons.com/atype.html Grützun, V. (Accessed February 2015) Cloud Microphysics Part I. Lecture Notes. Web Resource http://www.mi.uni-hamburg.de/fileadmin/user_upload/staff/gruetzun/Teaching/IMPRS_Course/imprs-course_20111205-09.pdf Grützun, V., personal communication, 2015 Houze, R.A., Jr. (2014) Cloud Dynamics. Academic Press. eBook https://books.google.com/books?id=GXEpAgAAQBAJ Mental Floss (Accessed February 2015 ) How Much Does a Cloud Weigh? Web Resource http://mentalfloss.com/article/49786/how-much-does-cloud-weigh Pruppacher, H.R., Klett, J.D. (2010) Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation. eBook Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 25, 2010. https://books.google.com/books?id=0MURkyjuoGMC The Weather Window (Accessed March 2015) Web Resource http://weather.mailasail.com/Franks-Weather/Latent-Heat
Views: 688711 MinuteEarth
Bedbugs. Seriously!?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Your contributions help us make more videos! Thanks to ScienceAlert for support - http://www.sciencealert.com MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Special thanks to TED-Ed for hosting Henry in their awesome New York City office while he did the drawings for this video! Note: Both male and female Cimex lectularius feed on humans. References: Biology and Behavior: http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7454.html http://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/pesticides/pdffiles/bb-biology1.pdf http://www.falw.vu.nl/nl/Images/siva%202006_tcm19-30750.pdf Bedbug History: http://entsoc.org/PDF/2011/AE-Potter-spring2011.pdf http://www.icup.org.uk/reports%5CICUP911.pdf Insecticides and Resistance: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2537818/pdf/bullwho00516-0089.pdf http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/09/08/conservatives-blame-environmentalists-for-bedbugs.html Treatment: http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef636.asp
Views: 665731 MinuteEarth
Which Came First - The Rain or the Rainforest?
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ This video sponsored by our Subbable supporter Cookie Blast: Cookie Blast at App Store - http://appstore.com/cookieblast & Facebook - http://facebook.com/cookieblastapp Thanks to Subbable supporter Steve Moyers for helping make MinuteEarth possible! __________ Created by Henry Reich Writing and Editing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Animation: Ever Salazar Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Thanks to Seth Riedel for pronunciation advice! _____________ MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n We're also on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! ___________ REFERENCES Boyce, C.K. et al. 2010. Angiosperms Helped Put the Rain in the Rainforests: The Impact of Plant Physiological Evolution on Tropical Biodiversity. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3417/2009143 Boyce, C.K. and Lee, J.-E. 2010. An exceptional role for flowering plant physiology in the expansion of tropical rainforests and biodiversity. http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/277/1699/3437.short Lee, J.‐E., and Boyce, C.K. 2010. Impact of the hydraulic capacity of plants on water and carbon fluxes in tropical South America. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2010JD014568/full Lewis, S.L. et al. 2011. The 2010 Amazon Drought. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6017/554.short Malhi, Y. et al. 2008. Climate Change, Deforestation, and the Fate of the Amazon. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5860/169.short Marengo, J.A. et al. 2008. The Drought of Amazonia in 2005. http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/2007JCLI1600.1 Nepstad, D. et al. 1999. Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v398/n6727/abs/398505a0.html Nepstad, D. et al. 2001. Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112701005114 Nickl, et al. 2010. Changes in Annual Land-Surface Precipitation Over the Twentieth and Early Twenty-First Century. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00045608.2010.500241 IMAGE SOURCES Land Surface Temperature Image by: Reto Stockli, NASA's Earth Observatory Team http://neo.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/view.php?datasetId=MOD11C1_M_LSTDA Deforestation Image by: The Earth Observatory, NASA http://www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/deforestation.php Amazon Droughts and Forest Fires Image by: The Earth Observatory, NASA http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=5930
Views: 1353631 MinuteEarth
Which Bear Is Best?
 
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Why do some species flourish and others falter? Sometimes it just comes down to luck. A big thank-you to our supporters on https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth : - Today I Found Out - Maarten Bremer - Jeff Straathof - Mark Roth - Tony Fadell - Muhammad Shifaz - 靛蓝字幕组 - Alberto Bortoni - Valentin - Antoine Coeur ___________________________________________ FYI: We try to leave jargon out of our videos, but if you want to learn more about this topic, here are some handy keywords to get your googling started: - Bering land bridge: an ancient land bridge that connected Asia and North America at various times during the Quaternary glaciation, allowing Homo sapiens and other species migrations. - The Holocene extinction: (also referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction) is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch (since around 10,000 BCE) mainly due to human activity. The Holocene extinction includes the disappearance of large land animals known as megafauna, starting between 9,000 and 13,000 years ago, the end of the last Ice Age. - Atlatl (spear-thrower): is a tool that uses leverage to achieve greater velocity in dart-throwing. - Bile bears: sometimes called battery bears, are bears kept in captivity to harvest their bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, which is used by some traditional Chinese medicine practitioners, though there is no evidence that bear bile has any medicinal effect, and no plausible mechanism by which it might work. Species featured in this video: - American black bear (Ursus americanus) - Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus) - Black-footed Ferret or American polecat (Mustela nigripes) - Steppe polecat (Mustela eversmanii) - Humans (Homo Sapiens) - Prairie dogs (genus Cynomys) ___________________________________________ Credits (and Twitter handles): Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Narrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics) With Contributions From: Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich and Rachel Becker Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Image Credits: Mustela nigripes - USFWS Mountain Prairie https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmtnprairie/5244106245/ Mustela eversmanii - Andrei Kotkin (used with permission) Ursus americanus - Ryan E. Poplin http://flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/668275432 Ursus thibetanus - Guérin Nicolas https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ursus_thibetanus_3_(Wroclaw_zoo).JPG _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd Get early, exclusive access to our videos on Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________ References: Schieck, B., McCown, W. (2014). Geographic distribution of American black bears in North America. Ursus, 25-1(24-33). Retrieved from http://www.bearbiology.com/fileadmin/tpl/Downloads/URSUS/Vol_25_1_/Scheick_and_McCown_2014_Ursus.pdf Pappas, S. (2014).Humans Blamed for Extinction of Mammoths, Mastodons & Giant Sloths. LiveScience. Retrieved from: http://www.livescience.com/46081-humans-megafauna-extinction.html Feng, Y., Siu, K., Wang, N., Ng, K., Tsao, S., Nagamatsu, T., Tong, Y. (2009). Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 5:2. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2630947/ Biggins, D., Hanebury, L., Miller, B., Powell, R. (2011). Black-footed ferrets and Siberian polecats as ecological surrogates and ecological equivalents. Journal of Mammalogy, 92(4): 710-720. Retrieved from https://www.fort.usgs.gov/sites/default/files/products/publications/22786a/22786a.pdf
Views: 1671857 MinuteEarth
The Story of Frozen Food
 
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Subscribe - it's FREE! - http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And please support us on Patreon - https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Thanks to Audible.com for support - https://www.audible.com/minuteearth MinuteEarth is on facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth And twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! Created by Henry Reich, with Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Rose Eveleth, Emily Elert, and John Guittar. Music by Nathaniel Schroeder http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Special thanks to Kaali and Aani Tobiassen! References: http://www.markkurlansky.com/books/new.aspx
Views: 1245920 MinuteEarth
How do Trees Survive Winter?
 
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Please support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ And subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd This video sponsored by: http://www.youtube.com/TheNilFacts And thanks to Subbable supporter Raed Massoud for helping make MinuteEarth possible! Humans can go inside or put on clothes, but trees spend winter naked in the cold. Why don't they all die? Created by Henry Reich Animation: Ever Salazar Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder Want to add captions to MinuteEarth videos? - minuteearth.subtitl.us MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes! References Cavender-Bares, J. (2005). Impacts of freezing on long distance transport in woody plants. Vascular transport in plants, 401-424. Davis, S. D., Sperry, J. S., & Hacke, U. G. (1999). The relationship between xylem conduit diameter and cavitation caused by freezing. American Journal of Botany, 86(10), 1367-1372. Ewers, F. W. (1985). Xylem structure and water conduction in conifer trees, dicot trees, and lianas. International Association of Wood Anatomists Bulletin,6(4). Pittermann, J., & Sperry, J. S. (2006). Analysis of freeze-thaw embolism in conifers. The interaction between cavitation pressure and tracheid size. Plant Physiology, 140(1), 374-382. Willson, C. J., & Jackson, R. B. (2006). Xylem cavitation caused by drought and freezing stress in four co‐occurring Juniperus species. Physiologia Plantarum, 127(3), 374-382. Zanne, A. E., Tank, D. C., Cornwell, W. K., Eastman, J. M., Smith, S. A., FitzJohn, R. G., ... & Beaulieu, J. M. (2013). Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments. Nature.
Views: 1196915 MinuteEarth
How Fighting Wildfires Makes Them Worse
 
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Today's wildfires burn, on average, twice the amount of land they did in 1970. The reason? We've been working too hard to put them out. Thanks to our Patreon patrons: - Today I Found Out - Jeff Straathof - Mark - Maarten Bremer - BurmansHealthShop - Duhilio Patiño - Alberto Bortoni - Avi Yashchin - Valentin - Nicholas Buckendorf - Antoine Coeur And a final thank you to our Subbable supporters: - https://twitter.com/wernerbatt - http://www.burmanshealthshop.com/ - @HealthBurmans - everclarity.com - Moti Lieberman - www.thelingspace.com - https://twitter.com/WeAretheProduct - HaplessHannah - www.youtube.com/HaplessHannah - siggimondo - Sigmund Leirvåg - Casey Zakroff - youtube.com/pHsquid - The Evangelical Potato Queen - http://i.imgur.com/EIsmuy3.jpg - frog32 - https://github.com/frog32 ___________________________________________ Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here's a keyword/phrase to get your googling started: fuel ladder ___________________________________________ Credits (& Twitter handles): Script Writer: Peter Reich Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert) Video Director: Henry Reich (@minutephysics) With contributions from: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida) & Alex Reich (@alexhreich) Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder _________________________________________ Like our videos? Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ Already subscribed? Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ Also, say hello on: Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6 Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ________________________ References: M.A. Finney, C.W. McHugh, and I.C. Grenfell. Stand- and landscape-level effects of prescribed burning on two Arizona wildfires. Can. J. For. Res. 35: 1714–1722 (2005) North, M.P., B.M. Collins, and S.L. Stephens. 2012. Using fire to increase the scale, benefits and future maintenance of fuels treatments. Journal of Forestry 110(7):392-401. Prichard SJ, Peterson DL, Jacobson K (2010) Fuel treatments reduce the severity of wildfire effects in dry mixed conifer forest, Washington, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40, 1615–1626. doi:10.1139/X10-109 Stephens, S.L., J.D. McIver, R.E.J. Boerner, C.J. Fettig, J.B. Fontaine, B.R. Hartsough, P. Kennedy, and D.W. Schwilk. 2012. Effects of forest fuel reduction treatments in the United States. BioScience 62:549-560. Stephens, S.L., J.K. Agee, P.Z Fulé, M.P. North, W.H. Romme, T.W. Swetnam, and M.G. Turner. 2013. Managing forests and fire in changing climates. Science 342:41-42. Image Credits: 2002 Rodeo Fire Satellite Image by Landsat 7 2006 Tripod Complex Fires and Fuel Treatment photos by: National Interagency Fire Center - http://www.nifc.gov/ Susan Prichard - https://www.firescience.gov/projects/briefs/07-1-2-13_FSBrief135.pdf Thanks also to Eli Anoszko, Mark Finney, Lee Frelich, Matt Hurteau, Dave Peterson, Susan Prichard, & Scott Stephens
Views: 1137577 MinuteEarth